Two papers on oat compounds’ bioavailability, starting with a 2022 review:
“There are many nutrients and bioactive chemical compounds exerting beneficial properties in oats. Results indicated that oats and their extracts possessed essential roles in preventing chronic diseases.
However, most studies focused on Avns’ [avenanthramides] functions were performed using cell models. In animal models, one disadvantage of Avns was low bioavailability.
Avns were also metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract in a gut microbiota (especially Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) dependent or independent manner. Administration of Avns usually ranged from 100−300 mg/ kg, which was much higher than that for cell treatment.
After eating cookies with 9.2 mg or 0.4 mg (control) Avns for 8 weeks, plasma level of TNF-α after exercise was significantly reduced in young women (16 women aged 18−30 years). Similar results were obtained in a study enrolling postmenopausal women (16 women aged 50−80 years), and Avns supplementation (9.2 mg in cookies) dramatically reduced plasma levels of IL-1β and C-reactive protein after exercise.
More attention should be given to studying preventative effect of Avns on chronic diseases and underlying molecular mechanisms, and further revealing potential roles of small molecules with powerful regulatory activity, such as miRNAs.”
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c05704 “The Progress of Nomenclature, Structure, Metabolism, and Bioactivities of Oat Novel Phytochemical: Avenanthramides” (not freely available)
This first paper’s Reference 25 was a 2018 paper on oat compounds’ bioaccessibility that used an in vitro digestion system without microbiota:
“Malting was performed for 5 days, from M0 (non-malted oat grains) to M5 (oat grains malted for 5 days), using the following: steeping at 20 °C for 24 h, germination in the dark at 15 °C, and kilning in an air oven at 100 °C for 12 h.
The cookie formulation with lowest phenol concentration showed highest bioaccessibility. This result was surprising, as we expected an increase in SP [soluble phenols] bioaccessibility, in parallel with increasing SP concentration of cookies.
A portion of 5B cookies provides 4.8 mg of AVNs, which is more than double a maximal daily AVN intake in oat consumers.”
https://ifst.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ijfs.14020 “In vitro bioaccessibility of avenanthramides in cookies made with malted oat flours” (not freely available)
Every day I eat Avena nuda oats that start out as 82 grams of seeds, and two servings of 3-day-old Avena sativa oat sprouts that each start out as 20 grams of seeds. Using this second paper’s 50 gram Avena nuda methods to develop estimates:
- (82 g / 50 g) x 42 µg = 69 µg total AVNs; and
- (82 g / 50 g) x 660 µg = 1,082 µg soluble phenols.
My Avena nuda whole oat grain total AVNs and soluble phenol weights aren’t much. They aren’t bioavailability estimates. Their species and growing conditions are different from this second paper, etc.
That’s all okay with me. I eat Avena nuda oats primarily to make my trillion+ gut microbiota partners happy with indigestible-to-me whole grain contents, expecting that they will reciprocate.
Plugging in the study’s 3-day figures to estimate Avena sativa oat sprouts:
- (40 g / 50 g) x 324 µg = 259 µg total AVNs; and
- (40 g / 50 g) x 1350 µg = 1,080 µg soluble phenols.
Using the first graphic’s 3-day relative bioaccessibility percentages:
- 259 µg x .28 = 72 µg total bioavailable AVNs; and
- 1,080 µg x .41 = 442 µg bioavailable soluble phenols.
Both papers cited studies that found with eccentric exercise, “9.2 mg per day AVNs are sufficient to provide effects on exercise induced inflammation.” I exercise at least 30 minutes every day, but don’t perform eccentric exercises more frequently than every five days per Eat broccoli sprouts for your workouts.
Advantages of 3-day-old oat sprouts over oat grains provided methods comparable to my Avena sativa 3-day-old oat sprouts intake, although it didn’t assess bioavailability. Sprouts’ beneficial effects compared with seeds “were mainly related to their high content of avenanthramides A (2p), B (2f), and C (2c), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside [rutin], kaempferol, sinapoylquinic acid, and apigenin and luteolin derivatives.”
Couldn’t say whether I benefit more from bioavailability of 3-day-old oat sprouts’ directly soluble phenols, or from bioavailability of their phenolic breakdown byproducts provided by gut microbiota. For example, regarding oat sprouts rutin content, a 2019 review pointed out:
“Humans lack the enzyme needed to hydrolyze this bond. Consequently, microorganisms in the colon mediate hydrolysis of this rutinoside, resulting in minimal intestinal absorption, and production of phenolic acid metabolites in the colon.”
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