This 2022 study investigated biological mechanisms of aging:
“Age-related multimorbidity, the presence of more than one age-related disease (ARD) in an individual, poses a major and increasing challenge. Open questions are whether mechanisms of aging can explain ARD co-occurrence in patients, and whether intervention into these mechanisms could prevent or treat multiple ARDs simultaneously.
Five signaling pathways/ cascades were significantly enriched across protein lists for all nine aging hallmarks. These pathways are likely to play a key role in the etiology of ARDs.
Among these five signaling pathways, three were involved in the innate and/ or adaptive immune response. Underlying genes were derived from ARDs comprising metabolic syndrome disorders, autoimmune disorders, and cancers, highlighting the immune response across multiple ARDs.
The ‘intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage by a p53 class mediator’ was also significantly enriched across all aging hallmark protein lists. Underlying genes were derived from multiple cancers and metabolic syndrome disorders.
The ERK1/2 pathway regulates many processes including cell survival, metabolism, and inflammation and was significantly enriched across all aging hallmark protein lists. Underlying genes were derived from 22 aging hallmark-associated ARDs.
Our study provides evidence for the role of aging hallmarks in the etiology of human ARD multimorbidities and ARDs with incompletely understood pathogenesis. We also raise the possibility that multiple ARDs may be prevented by targeting common signaling pathways.”
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acel.13524 “Biological mechanisms of aging predict age-related disease co-occurrence in patients”
I’ll assume that this study finding the importance of innate and adaptive immunity, intrinsic apoptotic, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in aging was incorporated into A rejuvenation therapy and sulforaphane treatment. Its lead laboratory researcher Dr. Harold Katcher said in interviews that the treatment was formulated from existing research findings.
Its first follow-on lifespan study is going well (4/30/2022 update).
7 6 of 8 treated subjects are alive, compared with 5 4 of 8 control group subjects.
Subjects’ age at the follow-on study’s February 2021 start was 24 months. They are 38-months-old now, and rat maximum lifespan is 45 months, so there should be preliminary results in 2022.
Regarding healthspan, grip strength in treated subjects after a fourth dose was recently measured at 2.6 times control subjects.
Other health measurements are body weight, and TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines.
A second follow-on study uses 18-month-old subjects of both sexes. The initial study was all males, and the first follow-on study is all females.
This second follow-on treatment group will be dosed at 45-day intervals vs. 90-day intervals of the first two studies. Human equivalent doses would be once every 4 years vs. every 8 years.
The treatment works per Beginning of the cure for aging and Reinvigorated. This second follow-on study is research and development to approximate optimal treatment times by age and possibly sex. The idea per Week 37 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts is that “by the second rejuvenation you’re already starting at ‘young’.”