This 2021 in vitro study investigated different composition and resultant effects of oat grain and sprouts:
“The aim of this study was to:
- Evaluate the effect of polyphenols and avenanthramides extracted from oat grains and sprouts on glucose and lipid metabolisms in 3T3 L1 adipocytes; and
- Identify compounds associated with their beneficial effects through a chemometric approach.
Oat (Avena sativa var. Turquesa) seeds soaked in distilled water at 1:6 w/v ratio for 12 hr. Seeds were then placed in trays covered with a wet filter paper, then into a germination chamber for 3 days at 25°C and 60% relative humidity.
Both polyphenol and avenanthramide extracts from oat sprouts showed a greater beneficial effect than those from oat grains:
Effect of oat grain and sprouts on glucose (a) and lipid (b) metabolism. PE-OG Polyphenol extract from oat grain; PE-OS polyphenol extract from oat sprout; AE-OG avenanthramide extract from oat grain; AE-OS avenanthramide extract from oat sprout. Glucose metabolism (a) Glut4, glucose transporter-4; Irs1, insulin receptor substrate-1; Pi3k, phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Lipid metabolism (b) Fasn, fatty acid synthase; Acaca, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; Cpt1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a; Acadm, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
- Twelve major and minor flavonols were found in greater amount in sprouts, whereas two were lost; and
- Two flavones were found in greater amounts in sprouts, whereas seven were reduced or lost. This is the first study that reports the profile of flavone derivatives in oat grains and sprouts.
- Six hydroxybenzoic acids were found in greater amounts in sprouts, whereas two were reduced or lost.
- Fifteen hydroxycinnamic acids were found in greater amounts in sprouts, whereas four were reduced or unchanged or lost. Hydroxycinnamic acids esterified with quinic acid such as sinapoylquinic, coumaroylquinic, and feruloylquinic acids, as well as other derivatives, were identified in this study for the first time in oat grain and oat sprouts.
Avenanthramides: all avenanthramides were significantly increased during sprouting (1.7 to 9.0-fold).
Health beneficial effects of oat grains and sprouts were mainly related to their high content of:
- Avenanthramides A (2p), B (2f), and C (2c);
- Flavonols quercetin 3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol;
- Hydroxycinnamic acid sinapoylquinic acid; and
- Flavones apigenin and luteolin derivatives.
Polyphenol and avenanthramide extracts from oat grains and oat sprouts increased expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and fatty acids β-oxidation, and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acids de novo synthesis (Fasn and Acaca) in 3T3 L1 adipocytes. Oat sprout extracts exerted an overall greater beneficial effect as compared to oat grain extracts.
This is the first study that demonstrates that oat avenanthramides and polyphenols modulate expression of key genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms in adipocytes. Further studies are necessary to validate these results using an in vivo approach.”
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jfbc.13738 “Polyphenols and avenanthramides extracted from oat (Avena sativa L.) grains and sprouts modulate genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms in 3T3 L1 adipocytes” (not freely available) Thanks to Dr. Iza F. Pérez-Ramírez for providing a copy.