This 2018 German review subject was retroviruses: “Initial indications that retroviruses are connected to neoplastic transformation were seen more than a century ago..43% of the human genome is made up of such elements and 8% of the genome is comprised of retroviruses that infected human ancestors, entering cells of the germ line or proliferating thereafter … Continue reading An example of researchers changing their field’s paradigms
This 2018 German human study found: “DNA methylation in a biologically relevant region of NR3C1-1F [the glucocorticoid receptor gene] moderates the specific direction of HPA-axis dysregulation (hypo- vs. hyperreactivity) in adults exposed to moderate-severe CT [childhood trauma]. In contrast, unexposed and mildly-moderately exposed individuals displayed moderately sized cortisol stress responses irrespective of NR3C1-1F DNA methylation. … Continue reading What will it take for childhood trauma research to change paradigms?
This 2017 New York/Swedish rodent study subject was the epigenetic effects on the F1 children of maternal low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation: “Male, but not female, offspring of LPD [low protein diet] mothers consistently displayed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors under acute stress. Our proposed pathway connecting early malnutrition, sex-independent regulatory changes in Egr1 … Continue reading A study of perinatal malnutrition where the paradigm excluded epigenetic inheritance
This 2017 review laid out the tired, old, restrictive guidelines by which current US research on the epigenetic effects of stress is funded. The reviewer rehashed paradigms circumscribed by his authoritative position in guiding funding, and called for more government funding to support and extend his reach. The reviewer won’t change his beliefs regarding individual … Continue reading How one person’s paradigms regarding stress and epigenetics impedes relevant research
As an adult, what would be your primary concern if you suspected that your early life had something to do with current problems? Would you be interested in effective treatments of causes of your symptoms? Such information wasn’t available in this 2016 Miami review of the effects of child abuse. The review laid out the … Continue reading The current paradigm of child abuse limits pre-childhood causal research
This 2016 Swiss review of enduring memories demonstrated what happens when scientists’ reputations and paychecks interfered with them recognizing new research and evidence in their area but outside their paradigm: “A framework containing the basic assumptions, ways of thinking, and methodology that are commonly accepted by members of a scientific community.” 1. Most of the … Continue reading A review that inadvertently showed how memory paradigms prevented relevant research
This 2018 French/Italian/Swiss rodent study used the prenatally restraint stressed (PRS) model to create problems that could be resolved by various chemicals: “S 47445 is a positive modulator of glutamate AMPA-type receptors, possessing neurotrophic and enhancing synaptic plasticity effects as well as pro-cognitive and anti-stress properties. Most of studies examining the antidepressant effects of new … Continue reading Prenatal stress produces offspring who as adults have cognitive, emotional, and memory deficiencies
What would you do if you were a scientist who had strong beliefs that weren’t borne out by experimental evidence? Would you be honest with yourself about the roots of the beliefs? Would you attempt to discover why the beliefs were necessary for you, and what feelings were associated with the beliefs? Instead of the … Continue reading Manufacturing PTSD evidence with machine learning
This 2018 UK paper reviewed genomic imprinting: “Since their discovery nearly 30 years ago, imprinted genes have been a paradigm for exploring the epigenetic control of gene expression. Moreover, their roles in early life growth and placentation are undisputed. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that imprinted gene function has a wider role in maternal … Continue reading Genomic imprinting and growth
Two items before getting to the review: 94% of rodent genera are naturally uniparental; The Rattus and Mus genera used in almost all rodent research aren’t part of the 6% in which fathers also provide offspring care. This 2018 Australian review subject was paternal intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of biological and behavioral phenotypes per this … Continue reading How well do single-mother rodent studies inform us about human fathers?