Adaptive and innate immunity

Two 2021 reviews presented aspects of human immune systems: “The adaptive immune system’s challenge is to protect the host through generation and differentiation of pathogen‐specific short‐lived effector T cells, while in parallel developing long‐lived memory cells to control future encounters with the same pathogen. The system highly relies on self‐renewal of naïve and memory T … Continue reading Adaptive and innate immunity

Immune memory vs. immune adaptation

This 2019 Dutch/German/Romanian perspective aimed for a better understanding of immune systems: “Based on molecular, immunological, and evolutionary arguments, we propose that innate immune memory is a primitive form of immune memory present in all living organisms, while adaptive immune memory is an advanced form of immune memory representing an evolutionary innovation in vertebrates. Innate … Continue reading Immune memory vs. immune adaptation

Adaptations to stress encourage mutations in a DNA area that causes diseases

This 2015 Baylor human cell study subject was the underlying mechanisms of cellular responses to environmental stressors of cold, heat, hypoxia, and oxidation: “Because trinucleotide repeats are overrepresented in gene-regulatory proteins, stress-induced trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis may provide a path for the environment to subtly alter gene regulatory networks – with attendant changes in cell behavior – during … Continue reading Adaptations to stress encourage mutations in a DNA area that causes diseases

Every hand’s a winner, and every hand’s a loser

Another great blog post Know When To Fold ‘Em by Dr. Paul Clayton: “Newly formed proteins entering the endoplasmic reticulum must be correctly folded to achieve their final form and function. This is a complex procedure with a failure rate of over 80%. When metabolism is sufficiently skewed, accuracy of protein folding in the endoplasmic … Continue reading Every hand’s a winner, and every hand’s a loser

A bat epigenetic clock

This 2021 study subject was bats: “Exceptionally long-lived species, including many bats, rarely show overt signs of aging, making it difficult to determine why species differ in lifespan. Here, we use DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles from 712 known-age bats, representing 26 species, to identify epigenetic changes associated with age and longevity. Hypermethylated age- and longevity-associated … Continue reading A bat epigenetic clock

Oat β-glucan effects on colitis

This 2021 rodent study investigated oat β-glucan effects on colitis: “In this study, we determined effects of consumption of low- and high-molar-mass oat beta-glucans on expression of selected markers of apoptosis and autophagy in colonocytes in TNBS colitis-induced rats. We analyzed expression of colon wall receptors, including TLRs and Dectin-1, which are involved in recognition … Continue reading Oat β-glucan effects on colitis

Year One of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts

1. My subjective experiences these past 52 weeks are that noticeable changes keep happening due to combinations of: Eating clinically-relevant, twice-daily doses of microwaved 3-day-old broccoli sprouts, and taking nothing else an hour before or an hour after; Eating 3-day-old oat sprouts twice a day; Exercising every day; Taking yeast cell wall β-glucan and other … Continue reading Year One of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts

Long-lasting benefits of a common vaccine

This 2021 review subject was effects of the 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine: “Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines. It protects against many non-mycobacterial infections secondary to its nonspecific immune effects. The mechanism for these effects includes modification of innate and adaptive immunity. BCG vaccine is known to not only boost … Continue reading Long-lasting benefits of a common vaccine

Flailing with probiotics?

This 2021 review subject was probiotic bacteria survival and colonization: “Health benefits of probiotics are diminished due to substantial reduction of viable probiotic bacteria under harsh conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and colonization resistance caused by commensal bacteria. This review illustrates the journey of probiotics from oral administration to the gastrointestinal tract, followed by colonization … Continue reading Flailing with probiotics?

Eat broccoli sprouts for arthritis

This 2021 rodent study investigated sulforaphane’s adaptive immune system effects on arthritis: “Sulforaphane reduced clinical and histologic scores of collagen-induced arthritis mice. Anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects of sulforaphane were due to suppression of differentiation of naïve cells into plasma cells and GC [germinal center] B cells. This is the first report that sulforaphane exerts an … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for arthritis

Go with the Alzheimer’s Disease evidence

This 2021 study investigated gut microbiota differences between 100 AD patients and 71 age- and gender-matched controls: “Structural changes in fecal microbiota were evident in Chinese AD patients, with decreased alpha-diversity indices and altered beta-diversity ones, evidence of structurally dysbiotic AD microbiota. Interestingly, traditionally beneficial bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia, increase in these AD … Continue reading Go with the Alzheimer’s Disease evidence

Don’t take Beano if you’re stressed

This 2021 rodent study investigated diet and stress relationships: “We show that dietary raffinose metabolism to fructose couples stress-induced gut microbial remodeling to intestinal stem cells (ISC) renewal and epithelial homeostasis. Chow diet (CD) and purified diet (PD) confer distinct vulnerability to gut epithelial injury, microbial alternation and ISC dysfunction in chronically restrained mice. We … Continue reading Don’t take Beano if you’re stressed

Sulforaphane in the Goldilocks zone

This 2020 paper reviewed hormetic effects of a broccoli sprout compound: “Sulforaphane (SFN) induces a broad spectrum of chemoprotective effects across multiple organs that are of importance to public health and clinical medicine. This chemoprotection is dominated by hormetic dose responses that are mediated by the Nrf2/ARE pathway and its complex regulatory interactions with other … Continue reading Sulforaphane in the Goldilocks zone

Anti-tumor effects of β-glucan

This comprehensive 2020 rodent study investigated dozens of scenarios for β-glucan in the context of anti-tumor immunity: “Neutrophils and granulopoietic progenitors are major cellular effectors of β-glucan-induced trained immunity. The anti-tumor effect of β-glucan-induced trained immunity was mediated by qualitative changes in neutrophils. A tumor-suppressive phenotype in neutrophils was associated with training of granulopoiesis mediated … Continue reading Anti-tumor effects of β-glucan

Rub some broccoli sprouts on it

This 2020 human/rodent study investigated treating and preventing skin photodamage with sulforaphane: “Alterations in NRF2 signaling have been implicated in aging and stress-induced skin pigmentation disorders in the skin and hair follicles. NRF2 signaling regulates transcriptional programs involved in adaption and survival of cells in the setting of oxidative stress, and oxidative stress occurs in … Continue reading Rub some broccoli sprouts on it