Immune memory vs. immune adaptation

This 2019 Dutch/German/Romanian perspective aimed for a better understanding of immune systems: “Based on molecular, immunological, and evolutionary arguments, we propose that innate immune memory is a primitive form of immune memory present in all living organisms, while adaptive immune memory is an advanced form of immune memory representing an evolutionary innovation in vertebrates. Innate … Continue reading Immune memory vs. immune adaptation

Adaptations to stress encourage mutations in a DNA area that causes diseases

This 2015 Baylor human cell study subject was the underlying mechanisms of cellular responses to environmental stressors of cold, heat, hypoxia, and oxidation: “Because trinucleotide repeats are overrepresented in gene-regulatory proteins, stress-induced trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis may provide a path for the environment to subtly alter gene regulatory networks – with attendant changes in cell behavior – during … Continue reading Adaptations to stress encourage mutations in a DNA area that causes diseases

Week 6 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts

To follow up Week 5 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts: 1. I had an informative exchange with an author of Microwave broccoli to increase sulforaphane levels. The study provided an optimal sulforaphane end result of “(2.45 µmol/g DW)”. I asked a study author for additional data, and they replied: “The control GLR … Continue reading Week 6 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts

Week 4 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts

To follow up Week 3 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts: 1. I started panning 3-day-old broccoli sprouts before microwaving them in 100 ml of water with a 1000 W microwave on full power for 35 seconds. See Week 6 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts for why I stopped panning. … Continue reading Week 4 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts

An evolutionary view of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance

This 2020 Swiss/German review mainly cited weed, worm, and yeast studies: “RNA interference-related mechanisms can mediate the deposition and transgenerational inheritance of specific chromatin modifications in a truly epigenetic fashion. Epigenetics was initially defined as any heritable change in gene expression patterns without changes in the DNA sequence. Now, epigenetic phenomena are often characterized as … Continue reading An evolutionary view of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance

Trained immunity responses to bacterial infections

This 2019 Swiss rodent study investigated immune responses to five types of bacterial infections: “The innate immune system recalls a challenge to adapt to a secondary challenge, a phenomenon called trained immunity. Trained immunity protected mice from a large panel of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens inoculated systematically and locally to induce peritonitis, enteritis and pneumonia. … Continue reading Trained immunity responses to bacterial infections

Clearing out the 2019 queue of interesting papers

I’m clearing out the below queue of 27 studies and reviews I’ve partially read this year but haven’t taken the time to curate. I have a pesky full-time job that demands my presence elsewhere during the day. :-\ Should I add any of these back in? Let’s be ready for the next decade! Early life … Continue reading Clearing out the 2019 queue of interesting papers

Perinatal stress and sex differences in circadian activity

This 2019 French/Italian rodent study used the PRS model to investigate its effects on circadian activity: “The aim of this study was to explore the influence of PRS on the circadian oscillations of gene expression in the SCN [suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus] and on circadian locomotor behavior, in a sex-dependent manner. Research on transcriptional … Continue reading Perinatal stress and sex differences in circadian activity

Caloric restriction’s epigenetic effects

This 2019 US review subject was caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition: “Cellular adaptation that occurs in response to dietary patterns can be explained by alterations in epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA. Epigenetic reprogramming of the underlying chronic low-grade inflammation by CR can lead to immuno-metabolic adaptations that enhance quality of … Continue reading Caloric restriction’s epigenetic effects

OCD and neural plasticity

This 2019 New York rodent study investigated multiple avenues to uncover mechanisms of obsessive-compulsive disorder: “Psychophysical models of OCD propose that anxiety (amygdala) and habits (dorsolateral striatum) may be causally linked. Numerous genetic and environmental factors may reduce striatum sensitivity and lead to maladaptive overcompensation, potentially accounting for a significant proportion of cases of pathological … Continue reading OCD and neural plasticity