Non-CpG methylation

Three 2022 papers on methylation epigenetic modifiers, starting with a human study focused on mitochondrial DNA non-CpG methylation involving nucleobases other than guanine (arginine, cytosine, or thymine): “We collected brain tissue in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex from deceased individuals without (n = 39) and with (n = 14) drug use, and used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to cover … Continue reading Non-CpG methylation

The oligosaccharide stachyose

Two 2022 stachyose papers to follow on to Don’t take Beano if you’re stressed, which studied raffinose. Stachyose is in the raffinose oligosaccharide group with similar characteristics, and its content is usually larger in legumes. First is a rodent study: “Stress can activate the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and elevate glucocorticoids in the body (cortisol in … Continue reading The oligosaccharide stachyose

Estimating bioavailability of oat compounds

Two papers on oat compounds’ bioavailability, starting with a 2022 review: “There are many nutrients and bioactive chemical compounds exerting beneficial properties in oats. Results indicated that oats and their extracts possessed essential roles in preventing chronic diseases. However, most studies focused on Avns’ [avenanthramides] functions were performed using cell models. In animal models, one … Continue reading Estimating bioavailability of oat compounds

Eat broccoli sprouts for depression, Part 2

Here are three papers that cited last year’s Part 1. First is a 2021 rodent study investigating a microRNA’s pro-depressive effects: “Depressive rat models were established via chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) treatment. Cognitive function of rats was assessed by a series of behavioral tests. Nrf2 was weakly expressed in CUMS-treated rats, whereas Nrf2 upregulation … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for depression, Part 2

Gut microbiota’s positive epigenetic effects

Three papers with the first a 2021 review: “Gut microbiota along with their metabolites are involved in health and disease through multiple epigenetic mechanisms including: Affecting transporter activities, e.g. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs); Providing methyl donors to participate in DNA methylation and histone modifications; and miRNAs … Continue reading Gut microbiota’s positive epigenetic effects

Broccoli sprouts and microRNAs

This 2021 in vitro study investigated microRNAs as potential causative factors for broccoli’s beneficial effects: “A computational analysis was performed to explore processes and pathways associated with genes targeted either by: Host-expressed miRNAs (endogenous) modulated by bioactive compounds in broccoli; or miRNAs derived from broccoli (exogenous). miRNAs are noncoding RNAs containing between 19 and 24 … Continue reading Broccoli sprouts and microRNAs

All about vasopressin

This 2021 review subject was vasopressin: “Vasopressin is a ubiquitous molecule playing an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, thereby implicated in pathomechanisms of many disorders. The most striking is its central effect in stress-axis regulation, as well as regulating many aspects of our behavior. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a nonapeptide that is … Continue reading All about vasopressin

Cow milk causes disease

This 2021 review followed up Epigenetic effects of cow’s milk and many papers since then: “Epidemiological studies associate intake of cow milk with an increased risk of diseases, which are associated with overactivated mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Milk’s physiological function to maintain high mTORC1 signaling at the beginning of mammalian life … Continue reading Cow milk causes disease

Brown your white fat cells with broccoli sprouts

A 2021 rodent study and a blog post with 51 references investigated fat cells: “Sulforaphane (SFN) is a potent indirect antioxidant and a promising agent for controlling metabolic disorder disease. We evaluated efficacy of SFN against high fat diet (HFD)-induced-obesity mice, and investigated potential mechanisms. SFN: Suppressed HFD-induced body weight gain; Reduced fat cell [adipocyte] … Continue reading Brown your white fat cells with broccoli sprouts

All about the betaine

A trio of papers on betaine, the first being a 2021 series of thorough rodent experiments relating betaine and gut microbiota, and cause and effect: “Compared with lean individuals, adipose tissues in obese individuals secrete high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inducing: Systemic inflammation; Insulin resistance; Large amounts of carcinogenic … Continue reading All about the betaine

Clearing out the 2020 queue of interesting papers

I’ve partially read these 39 studies and reviews, but haven’t taken time to curate them. Early Life Intergenerational Transmission of Cortical Sulcal Patterns from Mothers to their Children (not freely available) Differences in DNA Methylation Reprogramming Underlie the Sexual Dimorphism of Behavioral Disorder Caused by Prenatal Stress in Rats Maternal Diabetes Induces Immune Dysfunction in … Continue reading Clearing out the 2020 queue of interesting papers

Eat broccoli sprouts for pain?

This 2018 study investigated pain-relieving effects of two broccoli sprout compounds, sulforaphane and chlorogenic acid: “Pharmacological evidence of the antinociceptive properties of broccoli aqueous extracts and bioactive metabolites were investigated in an experimental model of pain. It was found that sprouts produced better antinociceptive response than seeds and inflorescence of broccoli, where SFN [sulforaphane] and … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for pain?

Sulforaphane and RNAs

This 2020 Texas review subject was long non-coding RNAs: “We review the emerging significance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) as downstream targets and upstream regulators of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, a critical mediator of diverse cellular processes linked to increased cell survival. It is believed that more than 3% of human genes are regulated by … Continue reading Sulforaphane and RNAs

Eat broccoli sprouts today!

This 2020 Korean letter to a journal editor cited 23 recent papers in support of sulforaphane’s positive effects, mainly in anti-cancer treatments: “Gene expression is mediated by chromatin epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, promoter-enhancer interactions, and non-coding RNA (microRNA and long non-coding RNA)-mediated regulation. Approximately 50% of all tumor suppressor genes are inactivated … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts today!

Clearing out the 2019 queue of interesting papers

I’m clearing out the below queue of 27 studies and reviews I’ve partially read this year but haven’t taken the time to curate. I have a pesky full-time job that demands my presence elsewhere during the day. :-\ Should I add any of these back in? Let’s be ready for the next decade! Early life … Continue reading Clearing out the 2019 queue of interesting papers