This 2022 study investigated brain aging: “We aimed to explore key genes underlying cognitively normal brain aging and its potential molecular mechanisms. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain aging are complex and mainly include: Dysfunction of mitochondria; Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids in brain cells; Disorders of energy metabolism; Impaired ‘waste … Continue reading Young immune system, young brain
This 2022 review explored the title subject: “Cell signaling imposes many demands on proteins that comprise these pathways, including abilities to form active and inactive states, and to engage in multiple protein interactions. Signaling often requires amplifying signals, regulating or tuning responses to signals, combining information sourced from multiple pathways, all while ensuring process fidelity. … Continue reading Signaling pathways and disordered proteins
This 2022 study developed new epigenetic clocks: “Maximum lifespan is deemed to be a stable trait in species. The rate of biological function decline (i.e., aging) would be expected to correlate inversely with maximum species lifespan. Although aging and maximum lifespan are intimately intertwined, they nevertheless appear in some investigations to be distinct processes. Some … Continue reading Lifespan Uber Correlation
This 2021 rodent study investigated aging’s effects: “We investigated aging consequences on temporal patterns of antioxidant defenses, molecular clock machinery, and blood pressure. We observed circadian rhythms of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNA expression, as well as ultradian rhythms of Nrf2 mRNA levels, in the hearts of young adult rats. We also found … Continue reading Nrf2 and circadian rhythm
This 2021 in vitro study investigated microRNAs as potential causative factors for broccoli’s beneficial effects: “A computational analysis was performed to explore processes and pathways associated with genes targeted either by: Host-expressed miRNAs (endogenous) modulated by bioactive compounds in broccoli; or miRNAs derived from broccoli (exogenous). miRNAs are noncoding RNAs containing between 19 and 24 … Continue reading Broccoli sprouts and microRNAs
This 2021 review subject was vasopressin: “Vasopressin is a ubiquitous molecule playing an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, thereby implicated in pathomechanisms of many disorders. The most striking is its central effect in stress-axis regulation, as well as regulating many aspects of our behavior. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a nonapeptide that is … Continue reading All about vasopressin
This 2020 human cell study elaborated on mechanisms mentioned in Eat broccoli sprouts for your hearing and Sulforaphane in the Goldilocks zone: “NFE2L2/NRF2, a transcriptional factor that controls expression of multiple detoxifying enzymes through antioxidant response elements (AREs), is a target of sulforaphane (SFN). NFE2L2/NRF2 is a target gene of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a … Continue reading Precondition your defenses with broccoli sprouts
Two 2021 papers, both of which I found by each citing a 2009 Molecular mechanisms underlying cochlear degeneration in the tubby mouse and the therapeutic effect of sulforaphane (not freely available). First was a review: “Hair cell damage and loss mediated by oxidative stress are important causes of hearing loss. Sensorineural hearing loss is the … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for your hearing
This 2020 cell study investigated sulforaphane and three transcription pathways: “Novel findings of this study are: AMPK controls only a subset within the Nrf2-dependent transcriptome; Altered Nrf2 levels or altered accessibility of regulatory ARE sites do not account for observed differences in target gene transcription between used wt and AMPK −/− cells; Rather, AMPK presence/activity … Continue reading Part 3 of Broccoli sprouts activate the AMPK pathway
This 2020 rodent study investigated effects of different diets: “The present study aimed to evaluate effects of β-glucan on the microbiota gut-brain axis and cognitive function in an obese mouse model induced by a high-fat and fiber-deficient diet (HFFD). After long-term supplementation for 15 weeks, β-glucan prevented HFFD-induced cognitive impairment, assessed behaviorally by object location, novel … Continue reading Eat oats and regain cognitive normalcy
This 2020 food chemistry review provided phenolic-compound reasons to eat oats: “Phenolamides result from the conjugation of hydroxycinnamic acids with amines. These products contain a variety of metabolic, chemical, and functional capabilities due to the large number of possible combinations among the parent compounds. Of the currently known phenolamides, the most common are avenanthramides (AVAs), … Continue reading Eat oats today!
This 2020 review subject concerned a leading cause of blindness: “Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are toxic compounds that have adverse effects on many tissues including the retina and lens. AGEs promote formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which, in turn, boost production of AGEs, a vicious cycle. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a devastating microvascular … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for your eyes
This 2020 paper reviewed hormetic effects of a broccoli sprout compound: “Sulforaphane (SFN) induces a broad spectrum of chemoprotective effects across multiple organs that are of importance to public health and clinical medicine. This chemoprotection is dominated by hormetic dose responses that are mediated by the Nrf2/ARE pathway and its complex regulatory interactions with other … Continue reading Sulforaphane in the Goldilocks zone
Ever heard about AGEs? Here are three papers that describe how AGEs affect humans. First is a 2020 Italian review Common Protective Strategies in Neurodegenerative Disease: Focusing on Risk Factors to Target the Cellular Redox System: “Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for different conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain. Currently, … Continue reading Get serious about advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
This 2020 Swiss review subject was the interaction of Nrf2 activators and skin: “The electrophile and Nrf2 activator dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an established and efficient drug for patients suffering from the common inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. DMF is being tested for pharmacological activity in several other inflammatory skin conditions. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for your skin!