Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Two 2021 papers on glutathione interactions with β-glucan, with the first studying human cells from healthy donors: “(1→3)-β-D-Glucan stimulation induces epigenetic and transcriptomic changes in monocytes associated with increased glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Intracellular glutathione levels were crucial in regulating several monocyte antifungal functions including resilience to oxidative stress, immunometabolism, nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, … Continue reading Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Broccoli leaves and stems vs. highly-processed food

This 2022 rodent study investigated whether obesity caused by typical diets could be affected by adding a flour made of broccoli by-products: “Obesity usually arises as a consequence of an excess of energy intake relative to the expense of energy via metabolic and physical activity. However, combinations of genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors can also … Continue reading Broccoli leaves and stems vs. highly-processed food

Sulforaphane nose drops

This 2022 rodent study compared capabilities of intranasal nanoparticle sulforaphane and free sulforaphane to mitigate brain damage caused by a common cancer treatment: “Non-invasive intranasal (IN) trafficking of therapeutic agents with nanocarriers can enhance efficacy of drug delivery, biodistribution, bioavailability, and absorption against enzymatic degradation and extracellular transportation. Direct IN trafficking of nanocarriers is expected … Continue reading Sulforaphane nose drops

Eat broccoli sprouts for metabolic syndrome

This 2022 rodent study investigated sulforaphane’s effects on insulin resistance: “Insulin resistance is one of the defining clinical traits of metabolic syndrome, which represents a constellation of metabolic disorders, mainly comprising obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. This study aimed to investigate therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of sulforaphane (SFN) on high-fat … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for metabolic syndrome

Taurine week #3: Organs

Three 2022 papers investigated taurine’s effects on organs, starting with a rodent study of sepsis: “Sepsis usually causes multiple organ dysfunctions and high mortality. Pathogenesis of sepsis is thought to be driven by hyperactive inflammation following pathogen invasion. If the immune system fails to eradicate pathogens, immune homeostasis is disturbed, leading to an overwhelming inflammation … Continue reading Taurine week #3: Organs

Betaine and diabetes

Two 2022 papers on betaine’s effects, starting with a review: “Rodent studies provide evidence that betaine effectively limits many diabetes-related disturbances. Betaine therapy improves glucose tolerance and insulin action, which is strongly associated with changes in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. Betaine supplementation positively affects multiple genes, which expression is … Continue reading Betaine and diabetes

The misnomer of nonessential amino acids

Three papers, starting with a 2022 review: “Ideal diets must provide all physiologically and nutritionally essential amino acids (AAs). Proposed optimal ratios and amounts of true digestible AAs in diets during different phases of growth and production. Because dynamic requirements of animals for dietary AAs are influenced by a plethora of factors, data below as … Continue reading The misnomer of nonessential amino acids

Advanced glycation / lipoxidation end products

Three papers on what can be expected from AGEs, beginning with a 2022 review: “Carbonyl stress is a condition characterized by an increase in the steady-state levels of reactive carbonyl species (RCS) that leads to accumulation of their irreversible covalent adducts with biological molecules. In addition to causing damage directly, the RCS adducts advanced glycation … Continue reading Advanced glycation / lipoxidation end products

Nrf2 and circadian rhythm

This 2021 rodent study investigated aging’s effects: “We investigated aging consequences on temporal patterns of antioxidant defenses, molecular clock machinery, and blood pressure. We observed circadian rhythms of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNA expression, as well as ultradian rhythms of Nrf2 mRNA levels, in the hearts of young adult rats. We also found … Continue reading Nrf2 and circadian rhythm

Eat broccoli sprouts for your liver

This 2021 rodent study investigated sulforaphane pretreatment’s role in reducing liver injuries: “As a double blood supply organ of the portal vein and artery, the liver is highly sensitive to ischemia, and is one of the common organs to suffer from hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HI/RI). HI/RI leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overdoses … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for your liver

Remembering encounters provides future benefits

Two 2021 papers on trained immunity, with the first a review: “Effective memory immune responses rely on interaction between innate and adaptive immune cells. While activation of innate immunity provides the first line of defense against infections, it also primes the adaptive immune response. Adaptive immunity can enhance antimicrobial machinery of innate cells, making them … Continue reading Remembering encounters provides future benefits

Natural products vs. neurodegenerative diseases

I was recently asked about taking rapamycin for its effects on mTOR. I replied that diet could do the same thing. Here’s a 2021 review outlining such effects: “As common, progressive, and chronic causes of disability and death, neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) significantly threaten human health, while no effective treatment is available. Recent studies have revealed … Continue reading Natural products vs. neurodegenerative diseases

Eat broccoli sprouts every day

This 2020 rodent study demonstrated benefits from daily cooked broccoli intake, even when it contained no myrosinase enzyme and no sulforaphane: “Broccoli consumption by rats influenced several metabolic pathways that impact liver health. Plasma metabolite changes are potential biomarkers of liver health, and also monitor broccoli benefits. Rats fed a broccoli diet exhibited an enhanced … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts every day

Eat mushrooms for a longer life?

Two papers, starting with a 2021 meta-analysis of mushroom intake: “Mushroom consumption was associated with a lower risk of total mortality in this nationally representative sample of US adults. 15,546 participants were included, mean age 44.3 years. During a mean follow-up duration of 19.5 years, a total of 5,826 deaths were documented. Participants who reported … Continue reading Eat mushrooms for a longer life?

The amino acid ergothioneine

A trio of papers on ergothioneine starts with a 2019 human study. 3,236 people without cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus ages 57.4 ± 6.0 were measured for 112 metabolites, then followed-up after 20+ years: “We identified that higher ergothioneine was an independent marker of lower risk of cardiometabolic disease and mortality, which potentially can be … Continue reading The amino acid ergothioneine