This 2021 rodent study used small intestine alkaline phosphatase (IAP)-overexpressed subjects on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet to investigate effects:
“To examine direct effects of increased IAP expression on barrier function and development of metabolic diseases, we developed intestine-specific IAP transgenic mice (IAPTg) overexpressing human chimeric IAP. We evaluated effects of intestine-specific IAP overexpression on Western-type diet (WD)–induced atherosclerosis in Ldlr−/− mice.
Diets low in fiber deprive intestinal bacteria of essential nutrients. Luminal bacteria turn to alternate sources of energy, namely, the carbohydrate-rich mucosal layer. This enhances direct contact between gut bacteria and intestinal epithelial layer, and promotes inflammation and intestinal barrier dysfunction.
Increase in IAP improves intestinal barrier function by not only dephosphorylating LPS and limiting its translocation to systemic circulation, but also by improving mucosal layer. Furthermore, IAP overexpression results in attenuated WD-induced weight gain and significantly reduced absorption of dietary lipids, leading to attenuation of total plasma cholesterol and TG levels, as well as hepatic lipids. This improved metabolic profile results in significant reduction in WD-induced atherosclerosis in Ldlr−/−IAPTg mice.
IAP overexpression results in attenuated WD-induced weight gain and significantly reduced absorption of dietary lipids, leading to attenuation of total plasma cholesterol and TG levels, as well as hepatic lipids. This improved metabolic profile results in significant reduction in WD-induced atherosclerosis in Ldlr−/−IAPTg mice.
Increases in IAP can significantly attenuate effects of WD feeding on intestinal barrier function. It is noteworthy that IAP is also shown to be involved in innate immunity, and its activity is positively correlated to intestinal levels of IgA in mice and fecal immunoglobulins in humans.
The list of nutrients and food components/supplements that increase IAP continues to grow (galactooligosaccharides, glucomannan, vitamin D3), providing a novel opportunity to develop simple strategies for modulation of diet/nutrition to target metabolic diseases, including diabetes, fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis, or heart disease.”
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317144 “Over-Expression of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Attenuates Atherosclerosis”
This study used ileal samples from the small intestine’s last section for its findings. It complemented Take FOS or inulin to increase your gut’s alkaline phosphate activity which used large intestine samples to demonstrate effects of increased IAP activity.
Eat to make your gut microbiota happy, and expect reciprocity.