Resistant starch, β-glucan, and inulin

This 2021 paper reported results of two related human clinical trials: “Lean and prediabetic overweight/obese men were included in two randomized crossover studies. In one study, participants received supplements of either long-chain inulin+resistant starch (INU+RS), INU or maltodextrin (placebo, PLA) the day prior to a clinical investigation day. The second trial studied beta glucan+RS (BG+RS) … Continue reading Resistant starch, β-glucan, and inulin

Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Two 2021 papers on glutathione interactions with β-glucan, with the first studying human cells from healthy donors: “(1→3)-β-D-Glucan stimulation induces epigenetic and transcriptomic changes in monocytes associated with increased glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Intracellular glutathione levels were crucial in regulating several monocyte antifungal functions including resilience to oxidative stress, immunometabolism, nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, … Continue reading Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Eat oats for β-glucan and resistant starch

This 2021 review highlighted effects of processing oat products: “Starch contents in oats ranges from 51% to 65%. Resistant starch (RS) accounts for 29.31% of starch content in raw granular form of oat starch. RS in raw oat starch is RS2 starch, where its slow digestion is mainly due to the compact nature of starch … Continue reading Eat oats for β-glucan and resistant starch

Let β-glucan train your brain

This 2021 rodent study investigated yeast cell wall β-glucan’s effects on the brain’s immune system: “Innate immune memory can manifest in two different ways, [1] immune training and [2] immune tolerance, which means [1] an enhanced or [2] suppressed immune response towards a secondary challenge. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-glucan (BG) are two commonly used ligands … Continue reading Let β-glucan train your brain

Oat β-glucan effects on colitis

This 2021 rodent study investigated oat β-glucan effects on colitis: “In this study, we determined effects of consumption of low- and high-molar-mass oat beta-glucans on expression of selected markers of apoptosis and autophagy in colonocytes in TNBS colitis-induced rats. We analyzed expression of colon wall receptors, including TLRs and Dectin-1, which are involved in recognition … Continue reading Oat β-glucan effects on colitis

Evaluating a company-sponsored β-glucan paper

This 2020 review subject was yeast cell wall β-glucan effects in humans: “The first aim of this review is to collate and interpret the existing pre‐clinical research on β‐1,3/1,6‐glucan with regard to immunity in order to clarify its molecular mechanism of immunomodulatory action. The second aim of this review is to collate and evaluate the … Continue reading Evaluating a company-sponsored β-glucan paper

Choosing your future with β-glucan

This 2020 rodent study investigated yeast cell wall β-glucan effects on bacterial infections: “β-glucan is a potent inducer of epigenetic and functional reprogramming of innate immune cells, a process called trained immunity, resulting in an enhanced host response against secondary infections. We investigate whether β-glucan exposure confers protection against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. β-glucan … Continue reading Choosing your future with β-glucan

β-glucan comparisons

This 2018 rodent study compared and contrasted commercially available β-glucans: “β-glucans are natural biologically-active compounds called ‘biological response modifiers.’ This study is a follow-up of our three previous studies that tested 43 different glucans. We used 16 different glucans isolated from yeasts, mushrooms, algae, and oats. We compared their effects on phagocytosis, IL-2 production, antibody … Continue reading β-glucan comparisons

An oats β-glucan clinical trial

This 2020 human study investigated effects of processing β-glucan: “Nutritional advantages of oats compared to many other grains include gluten-free nature, high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein composition which complements that of pulses, and substantiated health effects of fibers, specifically oat β-glucan. Novel oat products, which are often semi-solid or liquid, generally need alterations … Continue reading An oats β-glucan clinical trial

Anti-tumor effects of β-glucan

This comprehensive 2020 rodent study investigated dozens of scenarios for β-glucan in the context of anti-tumor immunity: “Neutrophils and granulopoietic progenitors are major cellular effectors of β-glucan-induced trained immunity. The anti-tumor effect of β-glucan-induced trained immunity was mediated by qualitative changes in neutrophils. A tumor-suppressive phenotype in neutrophils was associated with training of granulopoiesis mediated … Continue reading Anti-tumor effects of β-glucan

Reprogram inflammation with β-glucan

This 2020 French human cell study found: “Exposure of mononuclear phagocytes to β-glucan contributes to the induction of innate immune memory, which is associated with long-term epigenetic, metabolic, and functional reprogramming. We investigated how preincubation of human monocytes with particulate β-glucan affects the biological response of macrophages following NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Upon infection or cellular … Continue reading Reprogram inflammation with β-glucan

Take responsibility for your one precious life – β glucan

From the main page of https://www.betaglucan.org/, a compilation for researchers: “Beta Glucan extracted from yeast cell wall, can be a potent immune response potentiator and modulator. A common test to determine a glucan’s immune response potentiation effectiveness is the measure of the degree to which a glucan increases the nitric oxide burst, a pathogen killing … Continue reading Take responsibility for your one precious life – β glucan

Immune system aging

This 2021 review by three coauthors of Take responsibility for your one precious life – Trained innate immunity cast a wide net: “Non-specific innate and antigen-specific adaptive immunological memories are vital evolutionary adaptations that confer long-lasting protection against a wide range of pathogens. However, these mechanisms of memory generation and maintenance are compromised as organisms … Continue reading Immune system aging

Trained immunity genes

This 2021 human cell study investigated trained immunity responses: “We integrated genetic, epigenetic, and functional validation data to shed light on regulation of trained immunity responses. This data integration revealed a novel role of SIGLECs and KDM4 genes on trained immunity responses. Siglec-5 is an inhibitory receptor that dampens the immune response, and was found … Continue reading Trained immunity genes

Sprout bioaccessibility

Twin 2021 in vitro studies of cruciferous sprout bioaccessibility, with the first addressing hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols: “The present work studies effects of physicochemical and enzymatic characteristics of gastrointestinal digestion on two major groups of phenolic compounds – flavonols and cinnamoyl derivatives – on red radish, red cabbage, broccoli, and white mustard sprouts. Effects of … Continue reading Sprout bioaccessibility