The function of the dorsal ACC is to monitor pain in survival contexts

This 2015 California human study was of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC): “No neural region has been associated with more conflicting accounts of its function than the dACC. The best psychological description of dACC function was related to pain processing—not executive, conflict, or salience processing. We conclude by considering that physical pain may be … Continue reading The function of the dorsal ACC is to monitor pain in survival contexts

The brainstem’s parabrachial nucleus

I often reread blog posts that you read. Yesterday, a reader clicked Treat your gut microbiota as one of your organs. On rereading, I saw that I didn’t properly reference the parabrachial nucleus as being part of the brainstem. A “parabrachial nucleus” search led me to a discussion of two 2020 rodent studies: “Nociceptive signals … Continue reading The brainstem’s parabrachial nucleus

Vitamin K-dependent proteins

This 2020 review focused on three Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs): “We summarize three important emerging VKDPs: Growth arrest‑specific protein 6 (Gas 6), Gla‑rich protein (GRP) and periostin in terms of their functions in physiological and pathological conditions. As examples: Carboxylated Gas 6 and GRP effectively protect blood vessels from calcification; Gas 6 protects from acute … Continue reading Vitamin K-dependent proteins

Ride the waves of gene expression with betaine

This 2021 cell study investigated a dietary supplement’s role in preventing nerve disease: “A loss of epigenetic control has been implicated in development of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have implicated aberrant DNA and histone methylation in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We have previously reported that methyl donor betaine is depleted in MS and is … Continue reading Ride the waves of gene expression with betaine

Oat β-glucan effects on colitis

This 2021 rodent study investigated oat β-glucan effects on colitis: “In this study, we determined effects of consumption of low- and high-molar-mass oat beta-glucans on expression of selected markers of apoptosis and autophagy in colonocytes in TNBS colitis-induced rats. We analyzed expression of colon wall receptors, including TLRs and Dectin-1, which are involved in recognition … Continue reading Oat β-glucan effects on colitis

Choosing your future with β-glucan

This 2020 rodent study investigated yeast cell wall β-glucan effects on bacterial infections: “β-glucan is a potent inducer of epigenetic and functional reprogramming of innate immune cells, a process called trained immunity, resulting in an enhanced host response against secondary infections. We investigate whether β-glucan exposure confers protection against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. β-glucan … Continue reading Choosing your future with β-glucan

Flailing with probiotics?

This 2021 review subject was probiotic bacteria survival and colonization: “Health benefits of probiotics are diminished due to substantial reduction of viable probiotic bacteria under harsh conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and colonization resistance caused by commensal bacteria. This review illustrates the journey of probiotics from oral administration to the gastrointestinal tract, followed by colonization … Continue reading Flailing with probiotics?

Treat your gut microbiota as one of your organs

Two 2021 reviews covered gut microbiota. The first was gut microbial origins of metabolites produced from our diets, and mutual effects: “Gut microbiota has emerged as a virtual endocrine organ, producing multiple compounds that maintain homeostasis and influence function of the human body. Host diets regulate composition of gut microbiota and microbiota-derived metabolites, which causes … Continue reading Treat your gut microbiota as one of your organs

How will you feel?

Consider this a partial repost of Moral Fiber: “We are all self-reproducing bioreactors. We provide an environment for trillions of microbes, most of which cannot survive for long without the food, shelter and a place to breed that we provide. They inhabit us so thoroughly that not a single tissue in our body is sterile. … Continue reading How will you feel?

Eat oats today!

This 2020 food chemistry review provided phenolic-compound reasons to eat oats: “Phenolamides result from the conjugation of hydroxycinnamic acids with amines. These products contain a variety of metabolic, chemical, and functional capabilities due to the large number of possible combinations among the parent compounds. Of the currently known phenolamides, the most common are avenanthramides (AVAs), … Continue reading Eat oats today!

Eat broccoli sprouts for pain?

This 2018 study investigated pain-relieving effects of two broccoli sprout compounds, sulforaphane and chlorogenic acid: “Pharmacological evidence of the antinociceptive properties of broccoli aqueous extracts and bioactive metabolites were investigated in an experimental model of pain. It was found that sprouts produced better antinociceptive response than seeds and inflorescence of broccoli, where SFN [sulforaphane] and … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for pain?

Nano-sulforaphane vs. barbecue chemicals

This 2020 chicken study investigated the capability of nano-sulforaphane to protect embryonic survival and neurogenesis from a barbecued meat chemical: “Common teratogenic [of, relating to, or causing malformations of an embryo or a fetus] factors related to the development of the nervous system, such as alcohol consumption and smoking, have attracted wide attention. Teratogenic factors … Continue reading Nano-sulforaphane vs. barbecue chemicals

Rub some broccoli sprouts on it

This 2020 human/rodent study investigated treating and preventing skin photodamage with sulforaphane: “Alterations in NRF2 signaling have been implicated in aging and stress-induced skin pigmentation disorders in the skin and hair follicles. NRF2 signaling regulates transcriptional programs involved in adaption and survival of cells in the setting of oxidative stress, and oxidative stress occurs in … Continue reading Rub some broccoli sprouts on it

Take responsibility for your one precious life – DHEA

This 2020 meta-analysis subject was DHEA: “Twenty-four qualified trials were included in this meta-analysis. Statistically significant increases in serum IGF-1 levels were found only in participants who were: Women; or Supplementing 50 mg/d; or Undergoing intervention for > 12 weeks; or Without an underlying comorbidity; or Over the age of 60 years. DHEA supplementation led … Continue reading Take responsibility for your one precious life – DHEA