Giving children allergies with pets

This 2021 human study investigated development and persistence of allergies:

“Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common IgE-mediated disorder involving troublesome symptoms of nasal congestion, nasal itch, sneezing, and associated eye symptoms. Like many chronic health conditions, AR stems from complex gene–environment interactions.

130 subjects with AR were recruited. Control population included 154 healthy children who underwent a regular physical examination in the same ear, nose and throat clinic as AR patients. Individuals with history of asthma or atopic dermatitis were excluded.

AR analysis

Plenty of contradictory associations exist as whether furred pet exposure (cats and dogs) may be a risk or a protective factor for AR development. Discrepancies are likely due to the ubiquitous nature of pet allergens, while pet owners are more concerned about sanitation and many other hygiene-related reasons.

Interaction of early-life pet exposure with methylation level of ADAM33 increased the risk for AR onset 1.423 times more in children. This study provides evidence that:

  • Early-life pet exposure and low methylation level of ADAM33 increase AR risk in children; and
  • The interaction between pet exposure and methylation level of ADAM33 may play an important role in development of AR.”

https://aacijournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13223-021-00526-5 “Interaction between early-life pet exposure and methylation pattern of ADAM33 on allergic rhinitis among children aged 3–6 years in China”


There’s nothing children can do about who their parents were. Exposing them to pet allergens, though, may be another example of early-life experiences causing lifelong effects.

Happy Mothers Day

This 2021 rodent study investigated effects on offspring of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) during gestation and lactation, and offspring HFD during young adulthood:

“We found that gestation was the most sensitive period to induce obesity in late life, and there was no difference between sexes in chance of obesity. Furthermore, we found that lactation and administration of a HFD post‐weaning increased incidence of lipid metabolism disorders and obesity in offspring.

gestational hfd effects on offspring

There are different windows of opportunity for programming epigenetically labile genes. Some studies support the alteration of epigenetic status during development as an important cause induced adult obesity.

Gestation is considered as the most sensitive period because high DNA synthesis and DNA methylation patterns are established for normal tissue development during the embryonic period. These two programming events are the times when the epigenetic state changes most widely in the life cycle.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcmm.16551 “Gestational high-fat diet impaired demethylation of Pparα and induced obesity of offspring”


Hey mothers! Do what you please. But don’t turn around and deny consequences of your behavior and choices on your descendants’ physiology and behavior, and possibly those of further descendants.

Gestation, birth, infancy, and early childhood are critical periods for humans. There’s no going back to correct errors and problems.

Does skin improvement cause overall effects?

This 2019 human skin study found:

“We demonstrated in aged mice that epidermal dysfunction largely accounted for age-associated elevations in circulating cytokine levels, and that improving epidermal function reduced circulating cytokine levels. We performed a pilot study to determine whether improving epidermal function reduces circulating proinflammatory cytokine levels in aged humans.

Both aged human and mouse skin display sustained abnormalities in epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) hydration, and elevations in SC pH 4-6, each of which has been shown to independently provoke cutaneous inflammation. Disruption of the epidermal permeability barrier provoked an increase in:

  1. Cutaneous cytokine production; and
  2. Serum cytokine levels, independent of hepatic or T cell involvement.

We assessed whether improving epidermal function with an emollient, containing a mixture of lipids that mimics components of normal SC, lowered circulating levels of these same pro-inflammatory cytokines in aged humans.

skin treatment

After 30 days of twice-daily topical treatments, circulating levels of IL-1β and IL-6 decreased significantly in the treated aged cohort vs. untreated aged controls. Topical treatments reduced circulating levels of IL-1β and IL-6 to levels comparable to young controls. Though levels of TNF-α declined by over 40% in comparison to untreated aged humans, the difference did not attain statistical significance.

Results of this preliminary study suggest that a larger clinical trial should be performed to confirm whether improving epidermal function also can reduce circulating proinflammatory cytokine levels in aged humans, while also possibly attenuating downstream development of chronic inflammatory disorders.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jdv.15540 “Topical applications of an emollient reduce circulating pro‐inflammatory cytokine levels in chronically aged humans: a pilot clinical study” (not freely available)


I discussed enrolling in a trial whose objective would be to test this study’s findings. No big deal, just have to take IL-6 and TNF-α measurements in an upcoming annual physical. Then apply that trial’s skin treatment for 30 days per this study’s twice-daily protocol.

Day 70 results from Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts provided some of last year’s measurements. IL-6 was already at a negligible 1.0 pg / ml, one-fifth of the above Baseline Young group’s 5.1 ± 0.9.

IL-6 2020

Probably won’t want my data, since their treatment wouldn’t be expected to lower an already very low inflammation marker.

Weight loss for the lazy

At the risk of becoming Dr. Paul Clayton’s echo chamber, another great blog post, Falling Down:

“When lab rats or mice are weighted down with lead pellets they lose substantial amounts of weight, almost exclusively adipose tissue. Unlike dieting, there is little if any loss of muscle mass, making lead an ideal weight loss strategy for the lazy.

A clinical trial generated the same result. Their paper concludes, ‘Increased weight loading reduces body weight and fat mass in obese subjects in a similar way as previously shown in obese rodents. These findings demonstrate that there is a loading-dependent homeostatic regulation of body weight, the gravitostat, also in humans.’

Polyphenol resveratrol protects against damaging effects of de-loading by acting as an exercise mimetic, and does so by activating AMP-K directly. Other nutrients which do the same thing include polyphenol quercetin, sapogenin dammaranes, and omega 3 fatty acid EPA.”


The doctor still doesn’t mention sulforaphane, although it activates the AMPK pathway on the way to its primary effect of Nrf2 activation. First time I’d seen the term covidiots.

“You can fool some people sometimes
But you can’t fool all the people all the time
And now you’ve seen the light
Stand up for your rights”

Part 2 of Broccoli sprouts activate the AMPK pathway

This 2021 review subject was metformin’s role in autophagy:

“Metformin had been used as the first choice for treating diabetes for almost a century. Autophagy is responsible for recycling and degrading cellular components, which significantly affects cell functions in physiology and pathology.

Effects of metformin on autophagy mainly depend on corresponding signaling pathways in specific organs or tissues. Metformin can induce autophagy in cells of many organs and tissues via affirmed signaling pathways, such as AMPK-related signaling pathways.

1-s2.0-S0753332221000718-gr5_lrg

Different signaling pathways (alone or in combination) mediated the process of metformin affecting autophagy in different organs or tissues. It is necessary to combine effects of metformin on autophagy with pharmacological effects on pathologies in different organs or tissues, which would provide indications for future metformin applications.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332221000718 “The effects of metformin on autophagy”


I characterized this review as Part 2 of Broccoli sprouts activate the AMPK pathway because that study’s experimental evidence showed sulforaphane activation of the AMPK pathway was a predecessor to sulforaphane’s main effects of Nrf2 pathway activation. This review didn’t even mention Nrf2 activation.

Do all of metformin’s cited effects apply to daily intake of broccoli sprouts? Probably not, but most people who take metformin every day aren’t healthy.

Grow your 3-day-old sprouts in darkness

This 2021 study examined light frequency effects on Chinese kale sprouts’ development of glucosinolates:

“We investigated sprout growth and secondary metabolite glucosinolates (GSs) accumulation under white or combined red-and-blue (RB) light sources. Most GSs in sprouts are stored in seeds, which is gradually degraded to provide nutrients for other metabolic functions.

Phenotype of 3-day-old Chinese kale sprouts grown with different photoperiods condition under white or RB light:

capital A was grown in darkness

Sprouts grown under dark conditions showed only elongation of hypocotyls [shoots]. Sprouts grew with shorter hypocotyls and wider cotyledons [first leaves] irrespective of whether a white or combined RB light source was used.

Growth indicators (including plant height, cotyledon length, fresh weight, and dry weight) under different photoperiodic treatments were measured on days 2, 3, 6, and 9. Consistent with the phenotype presented, plant height and cotyledon length responded rhythmically to illumination time.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.589746/full “Effect of Photoperiod on Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra) Sprouts Under White or Combined Red and Blue Light”


Circadian rhythms rule. Accept and adjust.

Week 56 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with sprouts

1. Per Improving healthy compounds of broccoli sprouts and Broccoli sprouts’ immune effects, this week I added mustard sprouts and red cabbage sprouts to my twice-daily routine of eating 3-day-old microwaved broccoli sprouts.

At first, I started mustard and red cabbage seeds with the same 10.7 gram weight (one tablespoon) of seeds. They grew well such that after three days, mustard sprouts weighed an average 61.2 g, and red cabbage sprouts weighed 60.3 g average. Both of these were slightly less than broccoli sprouts’ 65.5 g average.

3-day-old mustard sprouts substantially mellowed out from mustard seeds’ effects. After microwaving mustard sprouts to ≤ 60°C (140°F) and letting them sit for five minutes, I still felt constant nose burn while eating them. 3-day-old red cabbage sprouts were milder than broccoli sprouts, so no difficulties.

The main problem with doing one tablespoon seed weights of all three Brassicaceae species consistently was that 61.2 + 60.3 + 65.5 = 187 g (6.6 ounces) twice a day was too much for me. I eat a lot of low-calorie fibrous food everyday to make my gut microbiota happy. An extra 4+ oz increase at the same time as twice-daily broccoli sprouts put my stomach over the top.

I changed to make equal contents of these three Brassicaceae species be the 10.7 g (one tablespoon) that I started sprouting twice a day.

2. I haven’t seen relevant mustard and red cabbage 3-day-old sprout studies, only 7+ day microgreen and mature plant studies. Evidence is limited in determining effects of cutting my estimated 52 mg of daily sulforaphane intake from broccoli sprouts by two-thirds starting this week.

A. I’ve eaten a clinically-relevant amount of sulforaphane every day for 4+ times longer than any clinical trial. I’ve experienced many positive effects described in studies, and look forward to further improvements.

Reducing sulforaphane intake from broccoli sprouts to 17 mg is still within boundaries of measurable effects. As an example, Upgrade your brain’s switchboard with broccoli sprouts found effects from a daily sulforaphane 17.3 mg (100 µmol) intake.

B. Mustard’s main glucosinolate, sinigrin, hydrolyzes to allyl isothiocyanate, and is in the same aliphatic group as broccoli’s glucoraphanin, which hydrolyzes to sulforaphane. An example of their similar effects was in a citation of Eat broccoli sprouts for DIM:

“Isothiocyanates are both inducers and substrates for Phase II enzymes as glutathione-S-transferases, and polymorphisms of these enzymes have a significant impact.”

Mustard’s myrosinase enzyme activities over and above broccoli myrosinase were highlighted in cited studies of Does sulforaphane reach the colon? Pretty sure that mustard sprouts’ myrosinase ≤ 60°C increases broccoli sprouts’ sulforaphane.

C. Red cabbage’s main glucosinolate is also glucoraphanin. Here’s a graphic from a 2010 study RED CABBAGE, A VEGETABLE RICH IN HEALTH-RELATED GLUCOSINOLATES which compared its glucoraphanin content with white cabbage:

red cabbage glucoraphanin vs white cabbage

The seeds I received were an “Agnostic” variety. In clarification correspondence with my supplier, I received a response “It means in this use ‘Generic’ or Variety not stated. Meaning it is just whatever variety of Red cabbage we bought and we don’t know the exact specifics.” 🙄

Red cabbage anthocyanins have a larger extent than broccoli anthocyanins, which was highlighted in Colorize your diet, Red cabbage pigments and the brain, and Measuring bioavailability. Figure 5 of Lab analyses of broccoli sprout compounds had analysis of three red cabbage cultivars’ 9-day-old sprouts. Glucosinolates are on top, hydrolysis products on the bottom. Glucoraphanin is red 4MSOB in A, and sulforaphane is red 4MSOB-ITC in C:

red cabbage 9-day-old sprouts

D. In summary, I don’t think I’ve significantly reduced broccoli sprouts’ effects by substituting two-thirds weight with two other Brassicaceae species. I haven’t noticed that growth characteristics / compounds interfered with each other.

Still looking for mustard and red cabbage 3-day-old sprout studies. My current Brassicaceae species composite is tasty, and doesn’t cause mustard nose burn.

3. This Brassicaceae species composite isn’t photogenic:

PXL_20210502_214348538

Red cabbage sprouts by themselves are pretty.

PXL_20210504_212505224

4. I still eat 3-day-old oat sprouts twice a day per Sprouting hulled oats. I don’t eat them with Brassicaceae species, but wait at least an hour later with Avena nuda oats in the morning, and AGE-less chicken vegetable soup in the evening.

Measuring bioavailability

This 2017 review challenged snapshot measurements of biological availability:

“There is a general belief that anthocyanins, flavanones, and other polyphenols are poorly bioavailable with only relatively small amounts of ingested dose entering systemic circulation in the form of metabolites. When lower molecular weight phenolic and aromatic ring-fission catabolites produced primarily by colonic microbiota are taken into account, it is evident that anthocyanins and flavanones are much more bioavailable than previously envisaged.

Although plasma pharmacokinetic measurements provide a snapshot of absorbed circulating metabolites, 0–24-h urinary excretion of both metabolites absorbed in the small intestine and catabolites of distal gastrointestinal (GI) origin that are products of bacterial processing provide a more quantitative reflection of polyphenol absorption. Overall 0–48-h urinary recovery of phenolic compounds – after baseline subtraction – was 43.9 ± 8.0 μmol, which is equivalent to 15% of ingested anthocyanins.

raspberries

With orders of magnitude higher plasma/serum Cmax levels and significantly longer half-lives, evidence points toward lower molecular weight phenolic and aromatic catabolites being the primary bioavailable products of anthocyanin consumption. Gut-derived catabolites can often exert higher bioactivity than their precursor flavonoid structures.”

https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-food-030216-025636 “Anthocyanins and Flavanones Are More Bioavailable than Previously Perceived: A Review of Recent Evidence” (not freely available)


Much of this review’s anthocyanin section was dedicated to a coauthor’s 9-person study where they ate a huge amount of raspberries. Its flavanone section was similarly influenced by another coauthor’s human orange juice studies.

I’d like to see stronger evidence before reviewer statements become faits accomplis, elevated through citations to become indisputable facts. Its underlying point that studies could take more and varied measurements over extended periods seems amenable to evidence.

I arrived at this review through its citations in Colorize your diet and Red cabbage pigments and the brain.

Red cabbage pigments and the brain

This 2020 sheep study measured red cabbage anthocyanin concentrations:

“Study aim was to determine whether strongly bioactive hydrophilic red cabbage anthocyanins cross the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (blood-CSF barrier) and whether there is a selectivity of this barrier towards these compounds.

The blood-CSF barrier, apart from the vascular blood-brain barrier, is the second important barrier. Despite very tight connections between endothelial cells of blood vessels of the choroid plexus, blood-CSF barrier allows selective passing of substances from blood to CSF, which is considered as a medium actively involved in transport of information to nerve cells.

Uncharged, lipophilic, and small-sized substances (≤ 600 Da) can cross the brain barriers without major obstacles thanks to diffusion. The rate of these substances’ penetration into brain tissue is directly proportional to their lipid solubility, and inversely proportional to particle size. Hydrophilic substances require special carriers.

The average percentage level of native anthocyanins over the whole experiment was almost 39.5%, while their metabolites constituted just over 60.5%. However, the proportion of native forms vs. metabolites did not develop identically:

  1. Early term (0.5-4 hrs) was distinguished by native derivatives (> 76%).
  2. Second period (4.5 h) had a similar contribution of native anthocyanins (49.85%) and their metabolites (50.15%).
  3. Third interval (5.0-10 h) more than 87% of anthocyanins were metabolites.

For comparison, a human experiment showed only one period with maximum blood plasma anthocyanins concentration (2 h) after red cabbage consumption.

Only one of 17 native anthocyanins found in blood plasma was detected in CSF. Eleven of 17 metabolites found in blood were identified in CSF.

sheep csf cyanins

Due to their hydrophilic nature and considerable size (≥ 611 Da), there seems to be no possibility to use diffusion for permeation of red cabbage anthocyanins through the blood-CSF barrier. These pigments may pass through this barrier only by the use of special carriers. Other mechanisms of anthocyanins permeation through blood-CSF barrier cannot be eliminated.

Two maximal values of total anthocyanins concentration appeared in both blood and CSF. When the pool of cyanidin compounds available in blood became depleted, the decline of total anthocyanin concentration in CSF was also noted.

Nonacylated cyanidin derivatives penetrated the blood-CSF barrier, but acylated cyanidin derivatives did not. A significantly higher proportion of cyanidin sulfate forms in CSF (31%) compared to blood plasma (9%).

Further targeted studies are needed to determine which paths of permeation via blood-CSF barrier are actually responsible for anthocyanins passing, as well as what mechanisms are present during these processes. In addition, it is worth remembering that low molecular weight compounds formed mainly by colonic microbiota are very important metabolites of anthocyanins, and could be relevant in the context of permeation through brain barriers.”

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03170 “The Blood–Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier Is Selective for Red Cabbage Anthocyanins and Their Metabolites” (not freely available)


Don’t understand why this study hasn’t been cited even once. These researchers’ methods could be performed with broccoli and other red cabbage compounds.

Colorize your diet

This 2020 review subject was anthocyanins in Brassicaceae species:

“Anthocyanins provide red to blue colors in Brassicaceae plants, have nutritional value, and pharmaceutical potential. This review summarizes chemical composition, stability, bioavailability, and health benefits.

Edible sprouts are good sources of anthocyanins. Even within the same species, content of anthocyanins may vary with cultivar, growing season, growth condition, and plant organ.

Acylated anthocyanins were more stable than non-acylated anthocyanins. Bioavailability is the proportion of nutrient reaching systemic circulation.

Brassicaceae anthocyanins

Large amounts of unabsorbed anthocyanins reached the large intestine, where they were extensively metabolized by microbiota, forming simple anthocyanins, which were much more bioavailable. Degradation products can also be absorbed.

When these events are taken into account, Brassicaceae anthocyanins might be more bioavailable than previously perceived.

Stability of Brassicaceae anthocyanins may be beneficial in preventing certain chemical degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Anthocyanins reaching blood circulation may be different from original food compounds.

Brassicaceae anthocyanins possess potential:

  • Antioxidant;
  • Anti-cancer;
  • Anti-inflammatory activities;
  • Protection against hepatic andrenal damage; and
  • Cardiovascular disease.

Most evidence is based on in vitro studies. More studies are necessary to further understand health benefits, as well as levels of consumption to maximize benefits, and mechanisms involved.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2020.1852170 “Anthocyanins in Brassicaceae: composition, stability, bioavailability, and potential health benefits” (not freely available)


I found this review as a fourth-order citation of related papers.

Chew it!

This 2020 human study examined associations between food consumption and chewing difficulty:

“Masticatory function influences not only control of chewing frequency and pressure, but also quality of life through food intake. Reduced food intake caused by chewing difficulty results in loss of eating pleasure and nutritional imbalance.

Chewing difficulty (DC) has been related to brain-related diseases such as cognitive impairment, cerebrovascular disorder, and Parkinson’s disease, increase in occurrence of diseases such as muscular dystrophy, aging acceleration, stomach, and kidney dysfunction due to reduced digestive enzyme secretion, and depression.

Subjects were divided into not difficult in chewing (NDC) and DC groups, with 24.17% being classified into DC. Average age of all subjects (n = 20,959 adult subjects aged between 19 and 64 yrs plus older) was 50.67 yrs. Average age of DC (60.5 yrs) was about 13 yrs older than NDC (47.5 yrs old).

Males and females consumed 35 and 37 items less frequently than the other sex, respectively:

nrp-14-637-g001

Subjects over 65 yrs who had chewing difficulty were 45.4% whereas that of adults was 24.3%. Items known to contain relatively high dietary fiber content or a high content of connective tissues were considered as foods to avoid by those with chewing difficulty due to strong or hard texture.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683204/ “Food consumption frequency of Korean adults based on whether or not having chewing difficulty using 2013–2016 KNHANES by sex-stratified comparative analysis”


I’d like to know more about subjects who had unresolved dental problems. This study focused on age and sex, but I’ve known twenty-somethings who had problems such as false teeth and dentures.

I go to a dentist twice a year. Don’t think I’d make my gut microbiota happy with Avena nuda oats, broccoli and oat sprouts, and AGE-less chicken vegetable soup if I had dental problems.

One aspect of research on short-chain fatty acids

To further understand An overlooked gut microbiota product, a 2018 rodent study found:

“Microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been implicated in gastrointestinal functional, neuroimmune regulation, and host metabolism, but their role in stress-induced behavioural and physiological alterations is poorly understood

SCFAs are primarily derived from fermentation of dietary fibres, and play a pivotal role in host gut, metabolic and immune function. All these factors have previously been demonstrated to be adversely affected by stress.

Administration of SCFAs to mice undergoing psychosocial stress alleviated enduring alterations in anhedonia and heightened stress-responsiveness, as well as stress-induced increases in intestinal permeability.

experimental design

SCFA treatment alleviated psychosocial stress-induced alterations in reward-seeking behaviour, and increased responsiveness to an acute stressor and in vivo intestinal permeability. In addition, SCFAs exhibited behavioural test-specific antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, which were not present when mice had also undergone psychosocial stress.”

https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/JP276431 “Short-chain fatty acids: microbial metabolites that alleviate stress-induced brain–gut axis alterations”


One way researchers advance science is to relate aspects of their findings to previous studies. That approach works, but may miss items that weren’t covered in previous research.

This study fed specific quantities of three SCFAs – acetate, butyrate, and propionate – apparently due to previous research findings. If other SCFAs produced by gut microbiota were ignored – like crotonate (aka unsaturated butyrate) – how would that approach advance science?

I found this study from its citation in Harnessing endogenous defenses with broccoli sprouts.

An overlooked gut microbiota product

This 2021 review subject was histone crotonylation:

“Histone crotonylation is a newly identified epigenetic modification that has a pronounced ability to regulate gene expression. It belongs to an expanding group of short chain lysine acylations that also includes the extensively studied mark histone acetylation.

Histone Kcr was first identified in 2011 where it was found to be mainly associated with active chromatin. Kcr occurs on the ε-amino group of the lysine side chain, where it neutralizes the positive charge of this residue. The loss in positive charge on histone Lys residues weakens DNA interaction, thus making chromatin less compact and accessible to DNA-binding factors.

Crotonate, like other short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), is mainly produced by gut microbiota during fermentation of partially and nondigestible carbohydrates. Circulating SCFAs (acetate, crotonate, butyrate, and propionate) can be taken up by tissues and converted into their cognate short-chain acyl-CoAs, the direct donors of histone Lys acylations.

fcell-09-624914-g001

Crotonyl-CoA is generated as a by-product of fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Synthesis of crotonyl-CoA can occur in mitochondria or the cytoplasm. Evidence suggests that histone acylations are directly sensitive to changes in concentrations of their corresponding acyl-CoA metabolites, and therefore can act as indicators of cellular metabolic state.

Only a small number of Kcr sites in human histones have been identified so far. This is in part due to a lack of commercially available Kcr site-specific antibodies, which has meant much of the research in this field has focused on studying total histone crotonylation. This is likely to limit our understanding of the importance of histone Kcr, as functional impact of modification at specific sites cannot be readily assessed.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2021.624914/full “The Regulation and Function of Histone Crotonylation”


At first I thought I had missed recent studies of gut microbiota producing crotonate. Searching again for “crotonate” “microbiota” 2020 2021, I didn’t find any that weren’t cited by this paper.

A lack of research could be due to factors mentioned above. It may also be that researchers just don’t look for evidence of the circulating SCFA crotonate.

Broccoli sprouts’ immune effects

Two 2021 papers, with the first’s subject being sulforaphane’s immune effects:

“Effects of sulforaphane (SFN) on immune response generate scientific interest because of its bioavailability, which is much higher than other phytochemicals, and its capacity to induce Nrf2 target genes. Clinical trials suggest that sulforaphane produces favorable results in cases where pharmaceutical products fail.

SFN exhibits the highest bioavailability among well-known antioxidant phytochemicals, such as quercetin (20-fold higher) and curcumin (80-fold higher). SFN confers a high potential to be used either as a nutraceutical to improve health status, or as pharmaceutical to treat disease states.

molecules-26-00752-g001

Sulforaphane exerts a pleiotropic effect on immunological response, and the final effect depends on cell type.

  • In lymphocyte T-cells, SFN induces ROS production, GSH depletion, and repression of inflammatory cytokines, resulting in suppression of immune and inflammatory responses.
  • In monocytes and macrophages, SFN stimulates immune response by inducing Nrf2, thus triggering antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses.”

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/3/752/htm “Potential of Sulforaphane as a Natural Immune System Enhancer: A Review”


A second study was Fertilization and Pre-Sowing Seed Soaking Affect Yield and Mineral Nutrients of Ten Microgreen Species:

“Ten tested microgreen species [amaranth, arugula, basil, broccoli, red cabbage, Daikon radish, kale, kohlrabi, mustard, and green pea] in this study varied in fresh and dry shoot weights, shoot height, and mineral nutrient concentrations.”

This study grew sprouts for 6 – 18 days before harvesting. Its study design didn’t require sampling along the way to discover informative compositional changes, as did 2020’s 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have the optimal yields and Broccoli sprout compounds include sinapic acid derivatives.

Their supplier was the same as I used for broccoli and red cabbage seeds. No endorsement is intended.

I’d rather use an unknown broccoli variety than this study’s broccoli cultivar, Waltham 29. It was found to be relatively glucoraphanin-deficient when measured in a 2004 study referenced in Tailoring measurements for broccoli sprouts, 32nd of 34 tested.

Received these today:

PXL_20210424_191628875

I’ve asked for clarification of the red cabbage seed variety I received. Not sure what “Agnostic” means in a “Red Cabbage Microgreen – Agnostic” context. 🙂

Mustard and red cabbage sprouting will follow Improving healthy compounds of broccoli sprouts efforts, minus that study’s laboratory setup and duration. I expect synergistic effects from handling both species’ sprouts with my protocol for microwaved 3-day-old broccoli sprouts.

Benefits of eating fermentable fiber

This 2021 review subject was effects of short-chain fatty acids produced by gut microbiota:

“SCFAs are the main players in the interplay between diet, microbiota, and health. SCFAs contribute to intestinal homeostasis and regulation of energy metabolism.

SCFAs regulate the blood–brain barrier and neuroimmunoendocrine functions. During gestation, SCFAs can cause epigenetic imprinting and protect against allergic airway disease.

gr3_lrg

Fiber reaching the colon is anaerobically fermented by gut bacteria, which produce SCFAs. Nondigestible polysaccharides are found in plant cell walls, and are further classified into soluble and nonsoluble dietary fibers.

A role for SCFAs in histone modification of tissues in the body was definitively shown by dietary supplementation of germ-free mice with microbially produced acetate, propionate, and butyrate. These SCFAs increased acetylation of histone H4 and H3 in a tissue-specific fashion.

Most research to date has focused on butyrate but unlike acetate and propionate, it is typically present in undetectable or very low concentrations in the body. SCFAs appear to influence health through three principal mechanisms:

  1. Altering levels of HAT [histone acetyltransferase] and HDAC [histone deacetylase] activity;
  2. Signaling by specific fatty acid-sensing GPCRs [G-protein-coupled receptors]; and
  3. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms in the periphery and tissues due to the first two mechanisms.”

https://www.cell.com/trends/microbiology/fulltext/S0966-842X(21)00035-4 “Microbial Regulation of Host Physiology by Short-chain Fatty Acids”


PXL_20210412_104327851