This 2021 paper reviewed evidence for immune system effects associated with specific gut areas:
“The intestinal immune system must not only contend with continuous exposure to food, commensal microbiota, and pathogens, but respond appropriately according to intestinal tissue differences. The entire intestine, inclusive of its lymph nodes, is considered a immunosuppressive organ overall compared to most other tissues, indicating that a state of tolerance to food and commensals – yet vigilance toward pathogens – was an evolutionarily stable strategy.
By operating in compartments, the immune system may generate multiple immune outcomes, even with simultaneous opposite goals e.g., tolerance or inflammation. Generation of unique immunologic niches within the intestine is influenced by a combination of tissue intrinsic properties, extrinsic environmental factors, and regionalized immune populations.
Complexity of intrinsic and extrinsic driving forces shaping an intestinal niche makes it very challenging to determine causality in disease development and predicting effective therapeutic approaches. We really only stand at the beginning of understanding this interplay.”
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41385-021-00420-8 “Intestinal immune compartmentalization: implications of tissue specific determinants in health and disease”
I patterned this post after Choosing your future with β-glucan:
“So where do you choose to be? In an 80% survival group who were administered β-glucan before they encountered a serious infection? Or in a < 20% survival group who didn’t take β-glucan?”
and Long-lasting benefits of a common vaccine:
“As inferred by “induction of trained immunity by both Bacillus Calmette-Guerin tuberculosis vaccine and β-glucan” many of these findings also apply to yeast cell wall β-glucan treatments.”
This paper’s food allergy references were interesting. It’s an area that personally requires further work, although avoidance has historically been effective.
This paper briefly mentioned broccoli’s effects in the proximal small intestine. It wasn’t informative per gut compartment with this year’s focus on making my gut microbiota happy, such as what our colonic microbiota can do to reciprocate their host giving them what they want.
This review’s human studies referenced what could be done post-disease like surgery etc. in different gut compartments. Very little concerned an individual taking responsibility for their own one precious life to prevent such diseases in the first place. Its Conclusions section claim was a fallacy:
“..very challenging to determine causality in disease development and predicting effective therapeutic approaches.”