Take taurine for your mitochondria

This 2021 review summarized taurine’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function: “Taurine supplementation protects against pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects, such as aging, mitochondrial diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders. Potential mechanisms by which taurine exerts its antioxidant activity in maintaining mitochondria health include: Conjugates with uridine on mitochondrial tRNA to form a … Continue reading Take taurine for your mitochondria

Little evidence for mitochondrial DNA methylation

This 2018 Japanese rodent study used three different techniques to detect mitochondrial DNA methylation: “Whilst 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a major epigenetic mark in the nuclear DNA in mammals, whether or not mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) receives 5mC modification remains controversial. We used bisulfite sequencing, McrBC digestion analyses and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which are distinctly differing … Continue reading Little evidence for mitochondrial DNA methylation

Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

This 2015 Pennsylvania rodent study found: “Mitochondria can regulate complex whole-body physiological responses, impacting stress perception at the cellular and organismal levels. Mitochondrial dysfunctions altered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal [HPA] axis, sympathetic adrenal–medullary activation and catecholamine levels, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, circulating metabolites, and hippocampal gene expression responses to stress. Stress-induced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic, and transcriptional responses … Continue reading Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

Taurine week #7: Brain

Finishing a week’s worth of 2022 taurine research with two reviews of taurine’s brain effects: “We provide a overview of brain taurine homeostasis, and review mechanisms by which taurine can afford neuroprotection in individuals with obesity and diabetes. Alterations to taurine homeostasis can impact a number of biological processes such as osmolarity control, calcium homeostasis, … Continue reading Taurine week #7: Brain

Taurine week #2: Bile acids

Two papers investigated taurine’s integration into bile acids, starting with a review: “Bile acids (BAs) are produced from cholesterol in the liver and are termed primary BAs. Primary BAs are conjugated with glycine and taurine in the liver, and stored in the gallbladder. BAs are released from the gallbladder into the small intestine via food … Continue reading Taurine week #2: Bile acids

Exercise substitutes?

Two papers, starting with a 2022 abstract of an ongoing in vitro study with rodent cells: “Exercise mimetics may target and activate the same mechanisms that are upregulated with exercise administration alone. This is particularly useful under conditions where contractile activity is compromised due to muscle disuse, disease, or aging. Sulforaphane and Urolithin A represent … Continue reading Exercise substitutes?

Coffee improves information’s signal-to-noise ratio

This 2022 rodent study investigated caffeine’s effects: “A majority of molecular and neurophysiological studies explored the impact of acute rather than repeated exposure to caffeine. We show that, in bulk tissue analysis, chronic caffeine treatment reduced metabolic processes related to lipids, mitochondria, and translation in mouse hippocampus. In sharp contrast to what was observed in … Continue reading Coffee improves information’s signal-to-noise ratio

Eat broccoli sprouts for stress

This 2022 review subject was aspects of sulforaphane regulating stress: “Sulforaphane (SFN) shows great versatility in turning on different cellular responses. This isothiocyanate acts as a master regulator of cellular homeostasis due to its antioxidant response and cytoplasmic, mitochondrial, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein modulation. SFN acts as an effective strategy to counteract oxidative stress, … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for stress

Young immune system, young brain

This 2022 study investigated brain aging: “We aimed to explore key genes underlying cognitively normal brain aging and its potential molecular mechanisms. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain aging are complex and mainly include: Dysfunction of mitochondria; Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids in brain cells; Disorders of energy metabolism; Impaired ‘waste … Continue reading Young immune system, young brain

Recent glucosamine research

Prompted by a conversation in Year Two of Changing to a youthful phenotype with sprouts, here are sixteen 2022 papers published in the last 45 days involving glucosamine. There are more researchers alive today than in the sum of human history, and they are compelled to publish. Human research https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874122002860 “The efficacy and safety of … Continue reading Recent glucosamine research

Advanced glycation / lipoxidation end products

Three papers on what can be expected from AGEs, beginning with a 2022 review: “Carbonyl stress is a condition characterized by an increase in the steady-state levels of reactive carbonyl species (RCS) that leads to accumulation of their irreversible covalent adducts with biological molecules. In addition to causing damage directly, the RCS adducts advanced glycation … Continue reading Advanced glycation / lipoxidation end products

Broccoli sprouts and your gut barrier

This 2021 human cell study investigated sulforaphane’s gut barrier protective effects: “Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are an important component of the epithelial barrier, which helps prevent passage of pathogens, toxins, and allergens from gastrointestinal lumen into the circulatory system. Destruction of the intestinal barrier increases intestinal permeability, destroys homeostasis of the immune system, and induces … Continue reading Broccoli sprouts and your gut barrier

CD38 and balance

I’ll highlight this 2022 review’s relationships between inflammation and cluster of differentiation 38: “We review the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) catabolizing enzyme CD38, which plays critical roles in pathogenesis of diseases related to infection, inflammation, fibrosis, metabolism, and aging. NAD is a cofactor of paramount importance for an array of cellular processes related to mitochondrial … Continue reading CD38 and balance

Defend yourself with taurine

This densely packed 2021 review subject was taurine: “Taurine (Tau), a sulphur-containing non-proteinogenic β-amino acid, has a special place as an important natural modulator of antioxidant defence networks: Direct antioxidant effect of Tau due to scavenging free radicals is limited, and could be expected only in a few tissues (heart and eye) with comparatively high … Continue reading Defend yourself with taurine

Part 2 of Improving epigenetic clocks’ signal-to-noise ratio

Another excellent blog post by Josh Mitteldorf, A New Approach to Methylation Clocks, that curated the same study: “The Levine/Horvath PhenoAge epigenetic clock was calibrated using a combination of metabolic factors that correlate with health, including inflammation, DNA transcription, DNA repair, and mitochondrial activity. Evolution is not an engineer. Living things are not constructed out … Continue reading Part 2 of Improving epigenetic clocks’ signal-to-noise ratio