Take taurine for your mitochondria

This 2021 review summarized taurine’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function: “Taurine supplementation protects against pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects, such as aging, mitochondrial diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders. Potential mechanisms by which taurine exerts its antioxidant activity in maintaining mitochondria health include: Conjugates with uridine on mitochondrial tRNA to form a … Continue reading Take taurine for your mitochondria

Little evidence for mitochondrial DNA methylation

This 2018 Japanese rodent study used three different techniques to detect mitochondrial DNA methylation: “Whilst 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a major epigenetic mark in the nuclear DNA in mammals, whether or not mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) receives 5mC modification remains controversial. We used bisulfite sequencing, McrBC digestion analyses and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which are distinctly differing … Continue reading Little evidence for mitochondrial DNA methylation

Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

This 2015 Pennsylvania rodent study found: “Mitochondria can regulate complex whole-body physiological responses, impacting stress perception at the cellular and organismal levels. Mitochondrial dysfunctions altered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal [HPA] axis, sympathetic adrenal–medullary activation and catecholamine levels, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, circulating metabolites, and hippocampal gene expression responses to stress. Stress-induced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic, and transcriptional responses … Continue reading Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

Part 2 of Improving epigenetic clocks’ signal-to-noise ratio

Another excellent blog post by Josh Mitteldorf, A New Approach to Methylation Clocks, that curated the same study: “The Levine/Horvath PhenoAge epigenetic clock was calibrated using a combination of metabolic factors that correlate with health, including inflammation, DNA transcription, DNA repair, and mitochondrial activity. Evolution is not an engineer. Living things are not constructed out … Continue reading Part 2 of Improving epigenetic clocks’ signal-to-noise ratio

Take acetyl-L-carnitine for early-life trauma

This 2021 rodent study traumatized female mice during their last 20% of pregnancy, with effects that included: Prenatally stressed pups raised by stressed mothers had normal cognitive function, but depressive-like behavior and social impairment; Prenatally stressed pups raised by control mothers did not reverse behavioral deficits; and Control pups raised by stressed mothers displayed prenatally … Continue reading Take acetyl-L-carnitine for early-life trauma

Part 3 of Broccoli sprouts activate the AMPK pathway

This 2020 cell study investigated sulforaphane and three transcription pathways: “Novel findings of this study are: AMPK controls only a subset within the Nrf2-dependent transcriptome; Altered Nrf2 levels or altered accessibility of regulatory ARE sites do not account for observed differences in target gene transcription between used wt and AMPK −/− cells; Rather, AMPK presence/activity … Continue reading Part 3 of Broccoli sprouts activate the AMPK pathway

Brown your white fat cells with broccoli sprouts

A 2021 rodent study and a blog post with 51 references investigated fat cells: “Sulforaphane (SFN) is a potent indirect antioxidant and a promising agent for controlling metabolic disorder disease. We evaluated efficacy of SFN against high fat diet (HFD)-induced-obesity mice, and investigated potential mechanisms. SFN: Suppressed HFD-induced body weight gain; Reduced fat cell [adipocyte] … Continue reading Brown your white fat cells with broccoli sprouts

Does sulforaphane treat autism?

A 2021 human study investigated sulforaphane treatments of autistic 3-to-12-year-olds: “Sulforaphane (SF) led to non-statistically significant changes in the total and all subscale scores of the primary outcome measure. Several effects of SF on biomarkers correlated to clinical improvements. SF was very well tolerated and safe and effective based on our secondary clinical measures. Clinical … Continue reading Does sulforaphane treat autism?

Ride the waves of gene expression with betaine

This 2021 cell study investigated a dietary supplement’s role in preventing nerve disease: “A loss of epigenetic control has been implicated in development of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have implicated aberrant DNA and histone methylation in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We have previously reported that methyl donor betaine is depleted in MS and is … Continue reading Ride the waves of gene expression with betaine

An overlooked gut microbiota product

This 2021 review subject was histone crotonylation: “Histone crotonylation is a newly identified epigenetic modification that has a pronounced ability to regulate gene expression. It belongs to an expanding group of short chain lysine acylations that also includes the extensively studied mark histone acetylation. Histone Kcr was first identified in 2011 where it was found … Continue reading An overlooked gut microbiota product

Several diseases, one treatment?

This 2021 review summarized three dietary supplements’ effects on psychiatric symptoms: “Upregulation of Nrf2 has been suggested as a common therapeutic target for major neuropsychiatric disorders. In this paper, evidence is presented showing how NAC [N-acetyl-cysteine], coenzyme Q10 (CoQ), and melatonin can ameliorate many important effects of oxidative stress by upregulating Nrf2. Given its key … Continue reading Several diseases, one treatment?

Treat your gut microbiota as one of your organs

Two 2021 reviews covered gut microbiota. The first was gut microbial origins of metabolites produced from our diets, and mutual effects: “Gut microbiota has emerged as a virtual endocrine organ, producing multiple compounds that maintain homeostasis and influence function of the human body. Host diets regulate composition of gut microbiota and microbiota-derived metabolites, which causes … Continue reading Treat your gut microbiota as one of your organs

Eat broccoli sprouts for your kidneys

Starting Year 7 of curating research with a 2021 review of kidney disease and sulforaphane: “Many chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients progress to end-stage kidney disease – the ultimate in failed prevention. While increased oxidative stress is a major molecular underpinning of CKD progression, no treatment modality specifically targeting oxidative stress has been established clinically. … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for your kidneys

Broccoli sprouts activate the AMPK pathway

I’ll curate this 2020 rodent study through its summary graphic and caption: “Type 2 diabetes exhibits elevated levels of circulating fatty acids and CD36. This results in excessive fatty acids binding with CD36 to suppress AMPK [adenosine 5′ monophosphate-activated protein kinase, a key player in regulating energy metabolism]. Inactivation of AMPK breaks homeostasis in lipid … Continue reading Broccoli sprouts activate the AMPK pathway

A case for carnitine supplementation

This 2020 review subject was carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and its other molecular forms: “Carnitine is necessary to deliver long-chain fatty acids from cytosol into mitochondria. Carnitine homeostasis is maintained by diet and renal absorption, as only a small amount (about 25%) is obtained by endogenous biosynthesis. Defective fatty acid oxidation occurs with reduced intracellular levels of … Continue reading A case for carnitine supplementation