This 2020 Texas review subject was long non-coding RNAs:
“We review the emerging significance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) as downstream targets and upstream regulators of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, a critical mediator of diverse cellular processes linked to increased cell survival.
It is believed that more than 3% of human genes are regulated by the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway. In addition to the classical cytoprotective and oxidative stress response genes transactivated by Nrf2, emerging evidence suggests a role for non-coding transcript regulation at the level of noncoding RNAs, [which] far outnumber protein-coding genes in the human genome.
One important distinction between miRNAs and lncRNAs is that the latter are often species-specific, meaning that a human lncRNA typically cannot be studied in the mouse or rat, and vice versa.
Sulforaphane (SFN) acts via multiple mechanisms to modulate gene expression, including the induction of Nrf2-dependent signaling. In addition to the established canonical targets of Nrf2, such as NQO1 and HMOX1, SFN altered the expression of multiple lncRNAs.
Given that SFN induces NMRAL2P [a lncRNA pseudogene] and several other lncRNAs in colon cancer cells, further studies are warranted on their respective roles as upstream regulators and/or downstream targets of Nrf2 signaling.
Pharmacological modulation of Nrf2 is considered a viable strategy against chronic conditions that are accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation:
- DMF [dimethyl fumurate] is the most successful Nrf2 activator, FDA-approved in 2013 for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. However, DMF causes leukopenia and other side-effects.
- Bardoxolone cleared Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of advanced chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but was halted in Phase III trials due to cardiovascular concerns.
- SFN is relatively unstable at room temperature.
We used reported bioinformatics approaches to search for putative ARE [antioxidant response element] sequences among the entire set of 16,000+ annotated human lncRNAs. 13,285 promoter regions contained one or more potential binding sites for Nrf2.”
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304383520303670 “Emerging crosstalk between long non-coding RNAs and Nrf2 signaling”
This study hyped lncRNAs in that only 7 have been validated as Nrf2 targets, and 8 validated as Nrf2 regulators. For regulators, “protein and/or miRNA interacting partners are yet to be fully corroborated” as well.
Also, there’s no need for a “SFN is relatively unstable at room temperature” problem. Just create sulforaphane right before consuming it.
Twice a day I microwave an average 65.5 grams of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts immersed in 100 ml water with a 1000W microwave on full power for 35 seconds to ≤ 60°C. After microwaving I transfer broccoli sprouts to a strainer, and wait five minutes to allow further myrosinase hydrolization of glucoraphanin and other glucosinolates into sulforaphane and other healthy compounds.