Trained immunity epigenetics

Two papers on trained immunity, starting with a 2022 review: “Live attenuated vaccines such as the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, measles-containing vaccines, and the oral polio vaccine have been shown to reduce overall mortality beyond their effects attributable to the targeted diseases. After an encounter with a primary stimulus, epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of bone marrow progenitor … Continue reading Trained immunity epigenetics

Oat product biological effects

Two oat species studies, starting with Avena nuda: “Oats are a good source of carbohydrates and fibers. They contain more proteins and fats than other grains, and they are packed with vitamins (vitamin E, thiamine, etc.), minerals (Ca, Fe, Mn, etc.), and antioxidants (avenanthramides, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, flavonoids, etc.). β-glucan contained in naked oats … Continue reading Oat product biological effects

Take β-glucan for new blood vessels

This 2022 cell study investigated yeast cell wall β-glucan’s effects on angiogenesis: “Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is essential for embryonic development and physiological damage repair, such as wound healing and post-ischemic tissue restoration. It is also essential for pathological processes, such as diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. We evaluated physical and … Continue reading Take β-glucan for new blood vessels

Year Two of Changing to a youthful phenotype with sprouts

1. I’ve eaten clinically-relevant doses of sulforaphane every day for 104 weeks now with microwaved 3-day-old broccoli, red cabbage, and mustard sprouts. That’s 8+ times longer than any sulforaphane clinical trial. I continue to: Eat Avena nuda oats for breakfast; Eat 3-day-old hulled Avena sativa oat sprouts twice a day; Eat AGE-less chicken vegetable soup … Continue reading Year Two of Changing to a youthful phenotype with sprouts

Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance of trained immunity, Part 2

A 2022 McGill University rodent study couldn’t replicate Part 1 findings: “We find that using similar mouse models of trained immunity induced by: Live vaccination (BCG); PAMPs (β-glucan); or Infection (C. albicans), protection against: Viral (influenza virus); Bacterial (Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)); or Fungal (C. albicans) infections was the same between offspring of trained and non-trained … Continue reading Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance of trained immunity, Part 2

Resistant starch, β-glucan, and inulin

This 2021 paper reported results of two related human clinical trials: “Lean and prediabetic overweight/obese men were included in two randomized crossover studies. In one study, participants received supplements of either long-chain inulin+resistant starch (INU+RS), INU or maltodextrin (placebo, PLA) the day prior to a clinical investigation day. The second trial studied beta glucan+RS (BG+RS) … Continue reading Resistant starch, β-glucan, and inulin

Immune system aging

This 2021 review by three coauthors of Take responsibility for your one precious life – Trained innate immunity cast a wide net: “Non-specific innate and antigen-specific adaptive immunological memories are vital evolutionary adaptations that confer long-lasting protection against a wide range of pathogens. However, these mechanisms of memory generation and maintenance are compromised as organisms … Continue reading Immune system aging

Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Two 2021 papers on glutathione interactions with β-glucan, with the first studying human cells from healthy donors: “(1→3)-β-D-Glucan stimulation induces epigenetic and transcriptomic changes in monocytes associated with increased glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Intracellular glutathione levels were crucial in regulating several monocyte antifungal functions including resilience to oxidative stress, immunometabolism, nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, … Continue reading Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Trained immunity genes

This 2021 human cell study investigated trained immunity responses: “We integrated genetic, epigenetic, and functional validation data to shed light on regulation of trained immunity responses. This data integration revealed a novel role of SIGLECs and KDM4 genes on trained immunity responses. Siglec-5 is an inhibitory receptor that dampens the immune response, and was found … Continue reading Trained immunity genes

Sprout bioaccessibility

Twin 2021 in vitro studies of cruciferous sprout bioaccessibility, with the first addressing hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols: “The present work studies effects of physicochemical and enzymatic characteristics of gastrointestinal digestion on two major groups of phenolic compounds – flavonols and cinnamoyl derivatives – on red radish, red cabbage, broccoli, and white mustard sprouts. Effects of … Continue reading Sprout bioaccessibility

Remembering encounters provides future benefits

Two 2021 papers on trained immunity, with the first a review: “Effective memory immune responses rely on interaction between innate and adaptive immune cells. While activation of innate immunity provides the first line of defense against infections, it also primes the adaptive immune response. Adaptive immunity can enhance antimicrobial machinery of innate cells, making them … Continue reading Remembering encounters provides future benefits

Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance of trained immunity

I’ll curate this 2021 rodent study Transmission of trained immunity and heterologous resistance to infections across generations (not freely available) through two instances of its news coverage: “Here we provide evidence for transmission of trained immunity across generations to murine progeny that survived a sublethal systemic infection with Candida albicans or a zymosan challenge. Progeny … Continue reading Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance of trained immunity

Eat oats and inulin to reverse effects of circadian disruption

This 2021 rodent study induced metabolic syndrome with a high-fat diet and switching light-dark cycles every week for 14 weeks. While continuing to disrupt circadian rhythms for ten more weeks, most metabolic effects were reversed by adding either 5% β-glucan, 5% inulin, or .05% melatonin to subjects’ high-fat diet: “Both prebiotics (oat β-glucan and chicory … Continue reading Eat oats and inulin to reverse effects of circadian disruption

Reinforce your immune memory every day

Three papers on trained immunity, with the first a 2021 review: “Trained immunity is realized by epigenetic reprogramming of cells, primarily monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, and is less specific than adaptive immunity. It may cross-protect against other infectious agents. Various actions of trained innate immunity on precursor cells have a strong potential for therapeutic … Continue reading Reinforce your immune memory every day

Trained immunity mechanisms

This 2021 cell study investigated how inflammatory memory is established, maintained, and recalled: “Cells retain a memory of inflammation that equips them to react quickly and broadly to diverse secondary stimuli. Temporal, dynamic changes to chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and transcription factor (TF) binding occur during inflammation, post-resolution, and in memory recall following injury. Epigenetic … Continue reading Trained immunity mechanisms