This 2019 Australian review subject was fetal adversities: “Adversity during the perinatal period is a significant risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders long after the causative event. Despite stemming from a variety of causes, perinatal compromise appears to have similar effects on the developing brain, thereby resulting in behavioural disorders of a similar … Continue reading A review of fetal adverse events
This 2019 Singapore human study used Diffusion Tensor Imaging on 5-to-17-day old infants to find: “Our findings showed evidence for region-specific effects of genotype and GxE on individual differences in human fetal development of the hippocampus and amygdala. Gene x Environment models outcompeted models containing genotype or environment only, to best explain the majority of … Continue reading Do genes or maternal environments shape fetal brains?
This 2018 Loma Linda review subject was gestational hypoxia: “Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. This review explores the impact of gestational hypoxia on maternal health and fetal development, and epigenetic mechanisms of developmental plasticity with emphasis … Continue reading The lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects on a fetus
This 2018 US baboon study was on fetal effects from maternal obesity before and during pregnancy: “Approximately 64% of women of childbearing age in the USA [are] overweight or obese. The baboon is a well-characterized animal model sharing many physiological, metabolic, and genetic characteristics with humans allowing direct translation of findings to human pregnancy. Our … Continue reading Maternal obesity causes fetal liver damage
This 2017 Australian review’s subject was epigenetic impacts involving microRNA in adverse intrauterine environments, and how these affected fetal heart tissue development: “We describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development
The fourth paper of Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance week was a 2016 German rodent study of of improperly-termed “transgenerational” epigenetic effects of alcohol: “We investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been … Continue reading “Transgenerationally” inherited epigenetic effects of fetal alcohol exposure
This 2015 Swedish rodent study found: “Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. Although clinical data are inconsistent, there are indications that androgens play a crucial role in behavior and mood regulation in females. Studies on the … Continue reading Fetal exposure to sex hormones and female anxiety
This 2015 Colorado rodent study found: “Maternal ADN [adiponectin, a hormone produced by fat cells, that regulates fat and glucose metabolism] supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Babies of mothers with obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are often large at birth and have increased adiposity, which … Continue reading Countering the epigenetic effects of obese mothers on their fetuses
This extremely dense and informative 2014 UK summary study provided details about genomic imprinting: “An unusual epigenetic process in that it is heritable and results in autosomal gene expression according to parent of origin.” Several notes of interest: Figure 3 had a fascinating sketch of how the fetus caused the mother’s hypothalamus to: “Determine forward … Continue reading Epigenetic DNA methylation and demethylation with the developing fetus
This 2014 rodent study was of polycystic ovarian syndrome, which is the leading cause of human female infertility. The researchers could reliably induce this disease in mice while they were still fetuses, but effects didn’t manifest until adulthood! The inducement method exposed the developing female fetuses to androgens such that their testosterone concentration was significantly … Continue reading Sex hormone exposure to the developing female fetus causes infertility in adulthood
“To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under heaven: A time to break down, and a time to build up; A time to mourn, and a time to dance; A time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing; A time to keep silent, and a time to … Continue reading A time to speak
This 2021 human review subject was interactions of gut health and disease with brain health and disease: “Actions of microbial metabolites are key for appropriate gut-brain communication in humans. Among these metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), tryptophan, and bile acid metabolites / pathways show strong preclinical evidence for involvement in various aspects of brain function … Continue reading Gut and brain health
This 2021 rodent study traumatized female mice during their last 20% of pregnancy, with effects that included: Prenatally stressed pups raised by stressed mothers had normal cognitive function, but depressive-like behavior and social impairment; Prenatally stressed pups raised by control mothers did not reverse behavioral deficits; and Control pups raised by stressed mothers displayed prenatally … Continue reading Take acetyl-L-carnitine for early-life trauma
This 2021 review followed up Epigenetic effects of cow’s milk and many papers since then: “Epidemiological studies associate intake of cow milk with an increased risk of diseases, which are associated with overactivated mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Milk’s physiological function to maintain high mTORC1 signaling at the beginning of mammalian life … Continue reading Cow milk causes disease
A 2021 human study investigated sulforaphane treatments of autistic 3-to-12-year-olds: “Sulforaphane (SF) led to non-statistically significant changes in the total and all subscale scores of the primary outcome measure. Several effects of SF on biomarkers correlated to clinical improvements. SF was very well tolerated and safe and effective based on our secondary clinical measures. Clinical … Continue reading Does sulforaphane treat autism?