This 2019 Australian review subject was fetal adversities: “Adversity during the perinatal period is a significant risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders long after the causative event. Despite stemming from a variety of causes, perinatal compromise appears to have similar effects on the developing brain, thereby resulting in behavioural disorders of a similar … Continue reading A review of fetal adverse events
This 2019 Singapore human study used Diffusion Tensor Imaging on 5-to-17-day old infants to find: “Our findings showed evidence for region-specific effects of genotype and GxE on individual differences in human fetal development of the hippocampus and amygdala. Gene x Environment models outcompeted models containing genotype or environment only, to best explain the majority of … Continue reading Do genes or maternal environments shape fetal brains?
This 2018 Loma Linda review subject was gestational hypoxia: “Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. This review explores the impact of gestational hypoxia on maternal health and fetal development, and epigenetic mechanisms of developmental plasticity with emphasis … Continue reading The lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects on a fetus
This 2018 US baboon study was on fetal effects from maternal obesity before and during pregnancy: “Approximately 64% of women of childbearing age in the USA [are] overweight or obese. The baboon is a well-characterized animal model sharing many physiological, metabolic, and genetic characteristics with humans allowing direct translation of findings to human pregnancy. Our … Continue reading Maternal obesity causes fetal liver damage
This 2017 Australian review’s subject was epigenetic impacts involving microRNA in adverse intrauterine environments, and how these affected fetal heart tissue development: “We describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development
The fourth paper of Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance week was a 2016 German rodent study of of improperly-termed “transgenerational” epigenetic effects of alcohol: “We investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been … Continue reading “Transgenerationally” inherited epigenetic effects of fetal alcohol exposure
This 2015 Swedish rodent study found: “Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. Although clinical data are inconsistent, there are indications that androgens play a crucial role in behavior and mood regulation in females. Studies on the … Continue reading Fetal exposure to sex hormones and female anxiety
This 2015 Colorado rodent study found: “Maternal ADN [adiponectin, a hormone produced by fat cells, that regulates fat and glucose metabolism] supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Babies of mothers with obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are often large at birth and have increased adiposity, which … Continue reading Countering the epigenetic effects of obese mothers on their fetuses
This extremely dense and informative 2014 UK summary study provided details about genomic imprinting: “An unusual epigenetic process in that it is heritable and results in autosomal gene expression according to parent of origin.” Several notes of interest: Figure 3 had a fascinating sketch of how the fetus caused the mother’s hypothalamus to: “Determine forward … Continue reading Epigenetic DNA methylation and demethylation with the developing fetus
This 2014 rodent study was of polycystic ovarian syndrome, which is the leading cause of human female infertility. The researchers could reliably induce this disease in mice while they were still fetuses, but effects didn’t manifest until adulthood! The inducement method exposed the developing female fetuses to androgens such that their testosterone concentration was significantly … Continue reading Sex hormone exposure to the developing female fetus causes infertility in adulthood
Two 2022 rodent studies from the same research group on short-chain fatty acid effects, beginning with butyrate: “Maternal nutrition, gut microbiome composition, and metabolites derived from gut microbiota are closely related to development of hypertension in offspring. A plethora of metabolites generated from diverse tryptophan metabolic pathways show both beneficial and harmful effects. Butyrate, one … Continue reading Gut microbiota, SCFAs, and hypertension
“We use data from a safety study (n = 18, mean age 74) to investigate whether human umbilical cord plasma concentrate (hereinafter Plasma Concentrate) injected weekly (1 ml intramuscular) into elderly human subjects over a 10-week period affects different biomarkers, including epigenetic age measures, standard clinical biomarkers of organ dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), and … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of plasma concentrate
2022’s busiest researcher took time out this month to update progress on epigenetic clocks. If I curated every study he’s contributed to, it would require at least three blog posts a week. I’ll link to a few he’s posted in August 2022 that are more appreciated in the researcher community. “In my lab, we are … Continue reading Epigenetic clocks so far in 2022
A 2022 review to follow up Caution on broccoli seed erucic acid content?: “Erucic acid is found to cause cardiac lipidosis in young animals, yet direct evidence of cardiac injury does not exist for young humans. Concerns about erucic acid safety and cardiotoxicity have been published in the press which are based on scientific reports … Continue reading Beneficial dietary erucic acid?
Two papers, starting with a 2022 abstract of an ongoing in vitro study with rodent cells: “Exercise mimetics may target and activate the same mechanisms that are upregulated with exercise administration alone. This is particularly useful under conditions where contractile activity is compromised due to muscle disuse, disease, or aging. Sulforaphane and Urolithin A represent … Continue reading Exercise substitutes?