A review of fetal adverse events

This 2019 Australian review subject was fetal adversities: “Adversity during the perinatal period is a significant risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders long after the causative event. Despite stemming from a variety of causes, perinatal compromise appears to have similar effects on the developing brain, thereby resulting in behavioural disorders of a similar … Continue reading A review of fetal adverse events

Do genes or maternal environments shape fetal brains?

This 2019 Singapore human study used Diffusion Tensor Imaging on 5-to-17-day old infants to find: “Our findings showed evidence for region-specific effects of genotype and GxE on individual differences in human fetal development of the hippocampus and amygdala. Gene x Environment models outcompeted models containing genotype or environment only, to best explain the majority of … Continue reading Do genes or maternal environments shape fetal brains?

The lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects on a fetus

This 2018 Loma Linda review subject was gestational hypoxia: “Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. This review explores the impact of gestational hypoxia on maternal health and fetal development, and epigenetic mechanisms of developmental plasticity with emphasis … Continue reading The lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects on a fetus

Maternal obesity causes fetal liver damage

This 2018 US baboon study was on fetal effects from maternal obesity before and during pregnancy: “Approximately 64% of women of childbearing age in the USA [are] overweight or obese. The baboon is a well-characterized animal model sharing many physiological, metabolic, and genetic characteristics with humans allowing direct translation of findings to human pregnancy. Our … Continue reading Maternal obesity causes fetal liver damage

Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

This 2017 Australian review’s subject was epigenetic impacts involving microRNA in adverse intrauterine environments, and how these affected fetal heart tissue development: “We describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

“Transgenerationally” inherited epigenetic effects of fetal alcohol exposure

The fourth paper of Transgenerational¬†epigenetic inheritance week was a 2016 German rodent study of of improperly-termed “transgenerational” epigenetic effects of alcohol: “We investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both¬†F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been … Continue reading “Transgenerationally” inherited epigenetic effects of fetal alcohol exposure

Fetal exposure to sex hormones and female anxiety

This 2015 Swedish rodent study found: “Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. Although clinical data are inconsistent, there are indications that androgens play a crucial role in behavior and mood regulation in females. Studies on the … Continue reading Fetal exposure to sex hormones and female anxiety

Countering the epigenetic effects of obese mothers on their fetuses

This 2015 Colorado rodent study found: “Maternal ADN [adiponectin, a hormone produced by fat cells, that regulates fat and glucose metabolism] supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Babies of mothers with obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are often large at birth and have increased adiposity, which … Continue reading Countering the epigenetic effects of obese mothers on their fetuses

Epigenetic DNA methylation and demethylation with the developing fetus

This extremely dense and informative 2014 UK summary study provided details about genomic imprinting: “An unusual epigenetic process in that it is heritable and results in autosomal gene expression according to parent of origin.” Several notes of interest: Figure 3 had a fascinating sketch of how the fetus caused the mother’s hypothalamus to: “Determine forward … Continue reading Epigenetic DNA methylation and demethylation with the developing fetus

Sex hormone exposure to the developing female fetus causes infertility in adulthood

This 2014 rodent study was of polycystic ovarian syndrome, which is the leading cause of human female infertility. The researchers could reliably induce this disease in mice while they were still fetuses, but effects didn’t manifest until adulthood! The inducement method exposed the developing female fetuses to androgens such that their testosterone concentration was significantly … Continue reading Sex hormone exposure to the developing female fetus causes infertility in adulthood

Sulforaphane vs. too much oxygen

This 2021 rodent study investigated perinatal effects of hyperoxia and sulforaphane: “We demonstrated that early-life oxidant-induced acute lung injury had significant consequences later in life on NRF2-dependent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) susceptibility in mice. We also determined that increased antioxidant conditions in utero potentially contribute to a decreased risk of postnatal airway disease as we … Continue reading Sulforaphane vs. too much oxygen

Offspring brain effects from maternal adversity

This 2021 rodent study investigated conception through weaning effects on offspring from stressing their mothers: “We investigated consequences of two prenatal insults, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and food-related stress, on DNA methylation profiles of the rat brain during early development. We analyzed patterns in prefrontal cortex, a key brain region involved in cognition, executive function, … Continue reading Offspring brain effects from maternal adversity

Week 87 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with sprouts

This week I dialed back eating microwaved 3-day-old broccoli / red cabbage / mustard sprouts from twice a day to once a day. For my reasoning, here are two papers on broccoli sprouts and thyroid function, with the first a 2018 human study: “We analyzed biochemical measures of thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in a … Continue reading Week 87 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with sprouts

Is liver damage reversible?

This 2021 rodent study measured sequential liver changes caused by a high-fat diet: “Using a longitudinal mouse study of diet-induced obesity in male mice, we investigated kinetics of hepatic DNA methylation and gene expression compared to those of obesity-induction to assess if they could be causal for development of insulin resistance. We aimed to find … Continue reading Is liver damage reversible?

All about the betaine, Part 2

Continuing Part 1 by curating a partial outline of a 2021 review: “This review focuses on the biological and beneficial effects of dietary betaine (trimethylglycine), a naturally occurring and crucial methyl donor. Betaine has a neuroprotective role, preserves myocardial function, and prevents pancreatic steatosis. Betaine also attenuates oxidant stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cancer … Continue reading All about the betaine, Part 2