Upgrade your brain’s switchboard with broccoli sprouts

Further investigating A claim of improved cognitive function, Part 3 of Rejuvenation therapy and sulforaphane offered: “Improving brain function does not depend on neurogenesis as much as it does on synapse formation and factors such as NMDA receptors which decline in density with age.” A PubMed “sulforaphane NMDA receptors” search turned up a 2019 cell … Continue reading Upgrade your brain’s switchboard with broccoli sprouts

Forcing people to learn helplessness

Learned helplessness is a proven animal model. Its reliably-created phenotype is often the result of applying chronic unpredictable stress. As we’re finding out worldwide, forcing humans to learn helplessness works in much the same way, with governments imposing what amounts to martial law. Never mind that related phenotypes and symptoms include: “Social defeat Social avoidance … Continue reading Forcing people to learn helplessness

A review of fetal adverse events

This 2019 Australian review subject was fetal adversities: “Adversity during the perinatal period is a significant risk factor for the development of neurodevelopmental disorders long after the causative event. Despite stemming from a variety of causes, perinatal compromise appears to have similar effects on the developing brain, thereby resulting in behavioural disorders of a similar … Continue reading A review of fetal adverse events

The role of recall neurons in traumatic memories

This 2018 Swiss rodent study found: “Our data show that: A subset of memory recall–induced neurons in the DG [dentate gyrus] becomes reactivated after memory attenuation, The degree of fear reduction positively correlates with this reactivation, and The continued activity of memory recall–induced neurons is critical for remote fear memory attenuation. Although other brain areas … Continue reading The role of recall neurons in traumatic memories

Melatonin and depression

This 2018 Polish review subject was the relationship between melatonin and depression: “Although melatonin has been known about and referred to for almost 50 years, the relationship between melatonin and depression is still not clear. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the genetic and epigenetic regulation of enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis and … Continue reading Melatonin and depression

Resiliency in stress responses

This 2018 US Veterans Administration review subject was resiliency and stress responses: “Neurobiological and behavioral responses to stress are highly variable. Exposure to a similar stressor can lead to heterogeneous outcomes — manifesting psychopathology in one individual, but having minimal effect, or even enhancing resilience, in another. We highlight aspects of stress response modulation related … Continue reading Resiliency in stress responses

A one-sided review of stress

The subject of this 2016 Italian/New York review was the stress response: “The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical [HPA] axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, … Continue reading A one-sided review of stress

A review that inadvertently showed how memory paradigms prevented relevant research

This 2016 Swiss review of enduring memories demonstrated what happens when scientists’ reputations and paychecks interfered with them recognizing new research and evidence in their area but outside their paradigm: “A framework containing the basic assumptions, ways of thinking, and methodology that are commonly accepted by members of a scientific community.” A. Most of the … Continue reading A review that inadvertently showed how memory paradigms prevented relevant research

Brain-region-specific energy metabolism affected the social competitiveness of highly-anxious rats

This 2015 Swiss rodent study found: “Mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region relevant for motivation and depression, is a critical mediating factor in the subordinate status displayed by high-anxious rats. Treatment with nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 that boosts mitochondrial respiration, into the NAc [nucleus accumbens] of high-anxious rats at … Continue reading Brain-region-specific energy metabolism affected the social competitiveness of highly-anxious rats

Improved methodology in studying epigenetic DNA methylation

This 2015 New York human study was of: “The two major populations of human prefrontal cortex neurons..the excitatory glutamatergic projection neurons and the inhibitory GABAergic interneurons which constitute about 80% and 20% of all cortical neurons, respectively. Major differences between the neuronal subtypes were revealed in CpG, non-CpG and hydroxymethylation (hCpG). A dramatically greater number … Continue reading Improved methodology in studying epigenetic DNA methylation