Melatonin and depression

This 2018 Polish review subject was the relationship between melatonin and depression: “Although melatonin has been known about and referred to for almost 50 years, the relationship between melatonin and depression is still not clear. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the genetic and epigenetic regulation of enzymes involved in melatonin synthesis and … Continue reading Melatonin and depression

Resiliency in stress responses

This 2018 US Veterans Administration review subject was resiliency and stress responses: “Neurobiological and behavioral responses to stress are highly variable. Exposure to a similar stressor can lead to heterogeneous outcomes — manifesting psychopathology in one individual, but having minimal effect, or even enhancing resilience, in another. We highlight aspects of stress response modulation related … Continue reading Resiliency in stress responses

A one-sided review of stress

The subject of this 2016 Italian/New York review was the stress response: “The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical [HPA] axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, … Continue reading A one-sided review of stress

A review that inadvertently showed how memory paradigms prevented relevant research

This 2016 Swiss review of enduring memories demonstrated what happens when scientists’ reputations and paychecks interfered with them recognizing new research and evidence in their area but outside their paradigm: “A framework containing the basic assumptions, ways of thinking, and methodology that are commonly accepted by members of a scientific community.” 1. Most of the … Continue reading A review that inadvertently showed how memory paradigms prevented relevant research

Brain-region-specific energy metabolism affected the social competitiveness of highly-anxious rats

This 2015 Swiss rodent study found: “Mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region relevant for motivation and depression, is a critical mediating factor in the subordinate status displayed by high-anxious rats. Treatment with nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 that boosts mitochondrial respiration, into the NAc [nucleus accumbens] of high-anxious rats at … Continue reading Brain-region-specific energy metabolism affected the social competitiveness of highly-anxious rats

Improved methodology in studying epigenetic DNA methylation

This 2015 New York human study was of: “The two major populations of human prefrontal cortex neurons..the excitatory glutamatergic projection neurons and the inhibitory GABAergic interneurons which constitute about 80% and 20% of all cortical neurons, respectively. Major differences between the neuronal subtypes were revealed in CpG, non-CpG and hydroxymethylation (hCpG). A dramatically greater number … Continue reading Improved methodology in studying epigenetic DNA methylation

A review of genetic and epigenetic approaches to autism

This 2015 Chicago review noted: “Recent developments in the research of ASD [autistic spectrum disorder] with a focus on epigenetic pathways as a complement to current genetic screening. Not all children with a predisposing genotype develop ASD. This suggests that additional environmental factors likely interact with the genome in producing ASD. Increased risk of ASD … Continue reading A review of genetic and epigenetic approaches to autism

Fetal exposure to sex hormones and female anxiety

This 2015 Swedish rodent study found: “Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. Although clinical data are inconsistent, there are indications that androgens play a crucial role in behavior and mood regulation in females. Studies on the … Continue reading Fetal exposure to sex hormones and female anxiety

A study that provided evidence for basic principles of Primal Therapy

This 2015 Northwestern rodent study found: “Fear-inducing memories can be state dependent, meaning that they can best be retrieved if the brain states at encoding and retrieval are similar. Memories formed in a particular mood, arousal or drug-induced state can best be retrieved when the brain is back in that state. “It’s difficult for therapists … Continue reading A study that provided evidence for basic principles of Primal Therapy

How brain neurons remain stable when constantly stimulated

This 2015 UK rodent study provided details of how neurons in the hippocampus respond to stimuli. The researchers found that hippocampal neurons: “Remain electrically stable when confronted with chronic increases in neuronal activity.” Changes in electrical potential changed the initial segment of the neuron’s axon. Synapses formed along the segment, and stayed in place while … Continue reading How brain neurons remain stable when constantly stimulated