Allergies and epigenetic histone modifications

This 2018 German review provided short summaries of 44 studies on the contribution of histone modifications to allergies. An overall summary of their search results was: “There are at least two levels at which the role of histone modifications is manifested. One is the regulation of cells that contribute to the allergic inflammation (T cells … Continue reading Allergies and epigenetic histone modifications

Measuring epigenetic DNA causes

This 2022 human cell study investigated DNA methylation and aging: “Models based on DNA methylation can be used to predict the age of biological samples, but their interpretability is limited due to the lack of causal inferences. Neither existing epigenetic clocks nor DNA methylation changes are enriched in causal CpG sites. Causal CpGs include similar … Continue reading Measuring epigenetic DNA causes

Natural sulforaphane effects

This 2022 rodent cell study used the natural form of sulforaphane to replicate experiments performed with mixtures of its natural and unnatural forms: “Natural sulforaphane (SFN) exists as a single enantiomer with a RS absolute configuration. Most studies focusing on its biological activities, in particular its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, have been conducted using its … Continue reading Natural sulforaphane effects

Trained immunity epigenetics

Two papers on trained immunity, starting with a 2022 review: “Live attenuated vaccines such as the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, measles-containing vaccines, and the oral polio vaccine have been shown to reduce overall mortality beyond their effects attributable to the targeted diseases. After an encounter with a primary stimulus, epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of bone marrow progenitor … Continue reading Trained immunity epigenetics

Non-CpG methylation

Three 2022 papers on methylation epigenetic modifiers, starting with a human study focused on mitochondrial DNA non-CpG methylation involving nucleobases other than guanine (arginine, cytosine, or thymine): “We collected brain tissue in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex from deceased individuals without (n = 39) and with (n = 14) drug use, and used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to cover … Continue reading Non-CpG methylation

Take β-glucan for new blood vessels

This 2022 cell study investigated yeast cell wall β-glucan’s effects on angiogenesis: “Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is essential for embryonic development and physiological damage repair, such as wound healing and post-ischemic tissue restoration. It is also essential for pathological processes, such as diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. We evaluated physical and … Continue reading Take β-glucan for new blood vessels

Vascular memory

This 2022 rodent study investigated effects of inducing hypertension for two weeks: “Hypertension is conventionally associated with a neurohormonal activation from the sympathetic nervous and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent regulator of blood pressure, and is also a key player in hypertension development. An initial 2-week exposure to AngII induced profound … Continue reading Vascular memory

An epigenetic regulator of vascular aging

This 2022 rodent and human cell study investigated the smooth muscle cell mineralocorticoid receptor: “Vascular stiffness increases with age and independently predicts cardiovascular disease risk. Epigenetic changes, including histone modifications, accumulate with age, but the global pattern has not been elucidated nor are the regulators known. Rising mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in aging vascular smooth muscle … Continue reading An epigenetic regulator of vascular aging

Gut microbiota’s positive epigenetic effects

Three papers with the first a 2021 review: “Gut microbiota along with their metabolites are involved in health and disease through multiple epigenetic mechanisms including: Affecting transporter activities, e.g. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs); Providing methyl donors to participate in DNA methylation and histone modifications; and miRNAs … Continue reading Gut microbiota’s positive epigenetic effects

Every baby needs a sugar mama

This 2021 in vitro study examined butyrate producers: “Butyrate produced by gut microbiota has multiple beneficial effects on host health. Oligosaccharides derived from host diets, and glycans originating from host mucus, are major sources of its production. Butyrate is the major energy source for epithelial cells in the distal colon, induces differentiation of colonic regulatory … Continue reading Every baby needs a sugar mama

Sulforaphane vs. too much oxygen

This 2021 rodent study investigated perinatal effects of hyperoxia and sulforaphane: “We demonstrated that early-life oxidant-induced acute lung injury had significant consequences later in life on NRF2-dependent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) susceptibility in mice. We also determined that increased antioxidant conditions in utero potentially contribute to a decreased risk of postnatal airway disease as we … Continue reading Sulforaphane vs. too much oxygen

Your lungs and Nrf2 activity

Two 2021 papers of Nrf2 activation effects on lung diseases, with the first a McGill University review: “Oxidative stress and subsequent activation of Nrf2 have been demonstrated in many human respiratory diseases. The purpose of this review is to summarize involvement of Nrf2 and its inducers in acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease … Continue reading Your lungs and Nrf2 activity

Immune system aging

This 2021 review by three coauthors of Take responsibility for your one precious life – Trained innate immunity cast a wide net: “Non-specific innate and antigen-specific adaptive immunological memories are vital evolutionary adaptations that confer long-lasting protection against a wide range of pathogens. However, these mechanisms of memory generation and maintenance are compromised as organisms … Continue reading Immune system aging

Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Two 2021 papers on glutathione interactions with β-glucan, with the first studying human cells from healthy donors: “(1→3)-β-D-Glucan stimulation induces epigenetic and transcriptomic changes in monocytes associated with increased glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Intracellular glutathione levels were crucial in regulating several monocyte antifungal functions including resilience to oxidative stress, immunometabolism, nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, … Continue reading Glutathione primes β-glucan-trained immunity

Trained immunity genes

This 2021 human cell study investigated trained immunity responses: “We integrated genetic, epigenetic, and functional validation data to shed light on regulation of trained immunity responses. This data integration revealed a novel role of SIGLECs and KDM4 genes on trained immunity responses. Siglec-5 is an inhibitory receptor that dampens the immune response, and was found … Continue reading Trained immunity genes