Allergies and epigenetic histone modifications

This 2018 German review provided short summaries of 44 studies on the contribution of histone modifications to allergies. An overall summary of their search results was: “There are at least two levels at which the role of histone modifications is manifested. One is the regulation of cells that contribute to the allergic inflammation (T cells … Continue reading Allergies and epigenetic histone modifications

Restoration of a “normal” epigenetic landscape

This 2018 Texas human review subject was prostate cancer epigenetics: “We comprehensively review the up-to-date roles of epigenetics in the development and progression of prostate cancer. We especially focus on three epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs. We elaborate on current models/theories that explain the necessity of these epigenetic programs in driving … Continue reading Restoration of a “normal” epigenetic landscape

Epigenetic effects of breast cancer treatments

This 2018 UC San Diego review subject was the interplay between breast cancer treatments and their effects on aging: “Although current breast cancer treatments are largely successful in producing cancer remission and extending lifespan, there is concern that these treatments may have long lasting detrimental effects on cancer survivors, in part, through their impact on … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of breast cancer treatments

Epigenetic variations in metabolism

This 2018 German review was comprehensive for its subject, epigenetic control of variation and stochasticity in metabolic disease. I’ll focus on one aspect, phenotypic variation: “Phenotypic [Mendelian] variation can result both from gain- and loss-of-function mutations. Because of the extreme interconnectivity of cell regulatory networks, even at the cellular level, predicting the impact of a … Continue reading Epigenetic variations in metabolism

A study of our evolutionary remnants

This 2018 Michigan human cell study subject was factors affecting the expression of human endogenous retroviruses: “We provide a comprehensive genomic and epigenomic map of the more than 500,000 endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and fragments that populate the intergenic regions of the human genome. The repressive epigenetic marks associated with the ERVs, particularly long terminal repeats … Continue reading A study of our evolutionary remnants

Preventing prostate cancer with a broccoli sprouts diet

This 2018 Oregon rodent study fed a 15% broccoli sprout diet beginning at four weeks of age to a mouse strain with a near-100% chance of developing prostate cancer: “Broccoli sprouts reduced prostate cancer incidence and progression to invasive cancer. Broccoli sprout consumption also decreased histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in the ventral lobe (age … Continue reading Preventing prostate cancer with a broccoli sprouts diet

Starving awakens ancient parasite DNA within us

This 2018 Italian human cell study conducted a series of experiments on the effects of nutrient deprivation: “Reduced food intake, and in particular protein or amino acid (AA) restriction, extends lifespan and healthspan. We have previously shown that, in mammalian cells, deprivation of essential AAs (methionine/cysteine or tyrosine) leads to the transcriptional reactivation of integrated … Continue reading Starving awakens ancient parasite DNA within us

A dietary supplement that trains the innate immune system

This 2018 Netherlands review topic was the long-term epigenetic programming of the innate immune system: “Immunological memory has been classically described for the adaptive immune system, in which naive B and T lymphocytes develop antigen-specific, long-lasting memory cells after encountering a new antigen. Immunological memory is not an exclusive trait of lymphocytes. The function of … Continue reading A dietary supplement that trains the innate immune system

A protein involved in fasting’s epigenetic effects

This 2018 Illinois rodent study conducted a series of experiments on a protein that’s activated by fasting: “Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) histone demethylase epigenetically regulates development and differentiation, immunity, and tumorigenesis by demethylating a gene repression histone mark, H3K27-me3. JMJD3 has what we believe to be a novel metabolic role and epigenetically regulates mitochondrial β-oxidation. Epigenetic … Continue reading A protein involved in fasting’s epigenetic effects

A disturbance in the paradigm of child abuse

The principal way science advances is through the principle Einstein expressed as: “No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Members of the scientific community and of the public should be satisfied that the scientific process is working well when hypotheses are discarded due to nonconfirming evidence. … Continue reading A disturbance in the paradigm of child abuse