Genomic imprinting and growth

This 2018 UK paper reviewed genomic imprinting: “Since their discovery nearly 30 years ago, imprinted genes have been a paradigm for exploring the epigenetic control of gene expression. Moreover, their roles in early life growth and placentation are undisputed. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that imprinted gene function has a wider role in maternal … Continue reading Genomic imprinting and growth

Genetic imprinting, sleep, and parent-offspring conflict

This 2016 Italian review subject was the interplay of genetic imprinting and sleep regulation: “Sleep results from the synergism between at least two major processes: a homeostatic regulatory mechanism that depends on the accumulation of the sleep drive during wakefulness, and a circadian self-sustained mechanism that sets the time for sleeping and waking throughout the … Continue reading Genetic imprinting, sleep, and parent-offspring conflict

A study of genetic imprinting and neurodevelopmental disorders

This 2016 UK human study assessed the roles of genetic imprinting on diseases that may originate from a certain interval on chromosome 15: “The 15q11.2-q13.3 region contains a cluster of imprinted genes, which are expressed from one parental allele only as a consequence of germline epigenetic events. The importance of epigenetic status of duplications at … Continue reading A study of genetic imprinting and neurodevelopmental disorders

Trapped, suffocating, unable to move – a Primal imprint

“The malady of needing to move constantly: organizing trips, making reasons to go here and there, and in general, keeping on the move..below all that movement is a giant, silent scream. The price we pay is never knowing our feelings or where they come from. We have the mechanism for our own liberation inside of … Continue reading Trapped, suffocating, unable to move – a Primal imprint

Cow milk causes disease

This 2021 review followed up Epigenetic effects of cow’s milk and many papers since then: “Epidemiological studies associate intake of cow milk with an increased risk of diseases, which are associated with overactivated mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Milk’s physiological function to maintain high mTORC1 signaling at the beginning of mammalian life … Continue reading Cow milk causes disease

Are rodent models of human neurodegenerative diseases realistic?

This 2020 stem cell review argued against rodent models of human neurodegenerative diseases: “Neuronal loss is not caused solely by intrinsic degenerative processes but rather via impaired interactions with surrounding glia and other brain cells. Dysfunctional astrocytes do not provide sufficient nutrients and antioxidants to neurons, while dysfunctional microglia cannot efficiently clear pathogens and cell … Continue reading Are rodent models of human neurodegenerative diseases realistic?

Happy Mothers Day

This 2021 rodent study investigated effects on offspring of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) during gestation and lactation, and offspring HFD during young adulthood: “We found that gestation was the most sensitive period to induce obesity in late life, and there was no difference between sexes in chance of obesity. Furthermore, we found that lactation and … Continue reading Happy Mothers Day

Benefits of eating fermentable fiber

This 2021 review subject was effects of short-chain fatty acids produced by gut microbiota: “SCFAs are the main players in the interplay between diet, microbiota, and health. SCFAs contribute to intestinal homeostasis and regulation of energy metabolism. SCFAs regulate the blood–brain barrier and neuroimmunoendocrine functions. During gestation, SCFAs can cause epigenetic imprinting and protect against … Continue reading Benefits of eating fermentable fiber

Choosing your future with β-glucan

This 2020 rodent study investigated yeast cell wall β-glucan effects on bacterial infections: “β-glucan is a potent inducer of epigenetic and functional reprogramming of innate immune cells, a process called trained immunity, resulting in an enhanced host response against secondary infections. We investigate whether β-glucan exposure confers protection against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. β-glucan … Continue reading Choosing your future with β-glucan

Long-lasting benefits of a common vaccine

This 2021 review subject was effects of the 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine: “Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines. It protects against many non-mycobacterial infections secondary to its nonspecific immune effects. The mechanism for these effects includes modification of innate and adaptive immunity. BCG vaccine is known to not only boost … Continue reading Long-lasting benefits of a common vaccine

Our first 1000 days

This 2021 review subject was a measurable aspect of our early lives: “The first 1000 days from conception are a sensitive period for human development programming. During this period, environmental exposures may result in long-lasting epigenetic imprints that contribute to future developmental trajectories. The present review reports on effects of adverse and protective environmental conditions … Continue reading Our first 1000 days

Adaptive and innate immunity

Two 2021 reviews presented aspects of human immune systems: “The adaptive immune system’s challenge is to protect the host through generation and differentiation of pathogen‐specific short‐lived effector T cells, while in parallel developing long‐lived memory cells to control future encounters with the same pathogen. The system highly relies on self‐renewal of naïve and memory T … Continue reading Adaptive and innate immunity

Go with the Alzheimer’s Disease evidence

This 2021 study investigated gut microbiota differences between 100 AD patients and 71 age- and gender-matched controls: “Structural changes in fecal microbiota were evident in Chinese AD patients, with decreased alpha-diversity indices and altered beta-diversity ones, evidence of structurally dysbiotic AD microbiota. Interestingly, traditionally beneficial bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia, increase in these AD … Continue reading Go with the Alzheimer’s Disease evidence

Part 2 of Switch on your Nrf2 signaling pathway

To follow up topics of Part 1‘s interview: 1. “We each have a unique microbial signature in the gut. Metabolites that you produce might not be the same ones that I produce. This makes clinical studies very difficult because you don’t have a level playing field.” This description of inter-individual variability could inform researchers’ investigations … Continue reading Part 2 of Switch on your Nrf2 signaling pathway

Does reprogramming signaling pathways create memories?

This 2020 study investigated genes and signaling pathways for inflammatory memory: “Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a critical role in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Chronic inflammation induces transcriptomic and epigenetic modifications that imparts a persistent catabolic phenotype to the FLS, despite their dissociation from the inflammatory environment. Sustained activated genes established pro-inflammatory signaling components known … Continue reading Does reprogramming signaling pathways create memories?