Genomic imprinting and growth

This 2018 UK paper reviewed genomic imprinting: “Since their discovery nearly 30 years ago, imprinted genes have been a paradigm for exploring the epigenetic control of gene expression. Moreover, their roles in early life growth and placentation are undisputed. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that imprinted gene function has a wider role in maternal … Continue reading Genomic imprinting and growth

Genetic imprinting, sleep, and parent-offspring conflict

This 2016 Italian review subject was the interplay of genetic imprinting and sleep regulation: “Sleep results from the synergism between at least two major processes: a homeostatic regulatory mechanism that depends on the accumulation of the sleep drive during wakefulness, and a circadian self-sustained mechanism that sets the time for sleeping and waking throughout the … Continue reading Genetic imprinting, sleep, and parent-offspring conflict

A study of genetic imprinting and neurodevelopmental disorders

This 2016 UK human study assessed the roles of genetic imprinting on diseases that may originate from a certain interval on chromosome 15: “The 15q11.2-q13.3 region contains a cluster of imprinted genes, which are expressed from one parental allele only as a consequence of germline epigenetic events. The importance of epigenetic status of duplications at … Continue reading A study of genetic imprinting and neurodevelopmental disorders

Trapped, suffocating, unable to move – a Primal imprint

“The malady of needing to move constantly: organizing trips, making reasons to go here and there, and in general, keeping on the move..below all that movement is a giant, silent scream. The price we pay is never knowing our feelings or where they come from. We have the mechanism for our own liberation inside of … Continue reading Trapped, suffocating, unable to move – a Primal imprint

Gut microbiota, SCFAs, and hypertension

Two 2022 rodent studies from the same research group on short-chain fatty acid effects, beginning with butyrate: “Maternal nutrition, gut microbiome composition, and metabolites derived from gut microbiota are closely related to development of hypertension in offspring. A plethora of metabolites generated from diverse tryptophan metabolic pathways show both beneficial and harmful effects. Butyrate, one … Continue reading Gut microbiota, SCFAs, and hypertension

Trained immunity epigenetics

Two papers on trained immunity, starting with a 2022 review: “Live attenuated vaccines such as the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, measles-containing vaccines, and the oral polio vaccine have been shown to reduce overall mortality beyond their effects attributable to the targeted diseases. After an encounter with a primary stimulus, epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of bone marrow progenitor … Continue reading Trained immunity epigenetics

Fueling a gut fire

This 2022 article commented on a human / rodent study of gut dysbiosis: “Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic disease that causes inflammation in the gastrointestinal track. Together with ulcerative colitis, another major type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these intestinal disorders affect millions of people in the U.S. and worldwide. Excessive T helper 1 … Continue reading Fueling a gut fire

Vascular memory

This 2022 rodent study investigated effects of inducing hypertension for two weeks: “Hypertension is conventionally associated with a neurohormonal activation from the sympathetic nervous and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent regulator of blood pressure, and is also a key player in hypertension development. An initial 2-week exposure to AngII induced profound … Continue reading Vascular memory

Eat broccoli sprouts for depression, Part 2

Here are three papers that cited last year’s Part 1. First is a 2021 rodent study investigating a microRNA’s pro-depressive effects: “Depressive rat models were established via chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) treatment. Cognitive function of rats was assessed by a series of behavioral tests. Nrf2 was weakly expressed in CUMS-treated rats, whereas Nrf2 upregulation … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts for depression, Part 2

Studying AGEs and neurodegeneration

This 2022 review suggested more effective ways to conduct in vitro studies of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and neurodegenerative diseases: “The main goal of this review was to present and discuss in vitro models that were applied or have the potential to be used in research on AGEs and ND. We introduced and explained … Continue reading Studying AGEs and neurodegeneration

Offspring brain effects from maternal adversity

This 2021 rodent study investigated conception through weaning effects on offspring from stressing their mothers: “We investigated consequences of two prenatal insults, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and food-related stress, on DNA methylation profiles of the rat brain during early development. We analyzed patterns in prefrontal cortex, a key brain region involved in cognition, executive function, … Continue reading Offspring brain effects from maternal adversity

Is liver damage reversible?

This 2021 rodent study measured sequential liver changes caused by a high-fat diet: “Using a longitudinal mouse study of diet-induced obesity in male mice, we investigated kinetics of hepatic DNA methylation and gene expression compared to those of obesity-induction to assess if they could be causal for development of insulin resistance. We aimed to find … Continue reading Is liver damage reversible?

Reworking evolutionary theory

Dr. Michael Skinner coauthored a 2021 review arguing for inclusion of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance into evolutionary theory: “Over the past 50 years, molecular technology has been used to investigate evolutionary biology. Many examples of finding no correlated genetic mutations or a low frequency of DNA sequence mutations suggest that additional mechanisms are also involved. Identical twins … Continue reading Reworking evolutionary theory

All about the betaine, Part 2

Continuing Part 1 by curating a partial outline of a 2021 review: “This review focuses on the biological and beneficial effects of dietary betaine (trimethylglycine), a naturally occurring and crucial methyl donor. Betaine has a neuroprotective role, preserves myocardial function, and prevents pancreatic steatosis. Betaine also attenuates oxidant stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cancer … Continue reading All about the betaine, Part 2

Reinforce your immune memory every day

Three papers on trained immunity, with the first a 2021 review: “Trained immunity is realized by epigenetic reprogramming of cells, primarily monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, and is less specific than adaptive immunity. It may cross-protect against other infectious agents. Various actions of trained innate immunity on precursor cells have a strong potential for therapeutic … Continue reading Reinforce your immune memory every day