Non-CpG DNA methylation

This 2017 Korean review compared and contrasted CpG and non-CpG DNA methylation: “Non-CpG methylation is restricted to specific cell types, such as pluripotent stem cells, oocytes, neurons, and glial cells..accumulation of methylation at non-CpG sites and CpG sites in neurons seems to be involved in development and disease etiology. Non-CpG methylation is established during postnatal … Continue reading Non-CpG DNA methylation

DNA methylation and childhood adversity

This 2017 Georgia human review covered: “Recent studies, primarily focused on the findings from human studies, to indicate the role of DNA methylation in the associations between childhood adversity and cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. In particular, we focused on DNA methylation modifications in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system.” Recommendations … Continue reading DNA methylation and childhood adversity

Can researchers make a difference in their fields?

The purpose and finding of this 2017 UK meta-analysis of human epigenetics and cognitive abilities was: “A meta-analysis of the relationship between blood-based DNA methylation and cognitive function. We identified [two] methylation sites that are linked to an aspect of executive function and global cognitive ability. The latter finding relied on a relatively crude cognitive … Continue reading Can researchers make a difference in their fields?

Epigenetic study methodologies improved in 2017

Let’s start out 2018 paying more attention to advancements in science that provide sound empirical data and methodology. Let’s ignore and de-emphasize studies and reviews that aren’t much more than beliefs couched in models and memes, whatever their presumed authority. Let sponsors direct researchers to focus on ultimate causes of diseases. Let’s put research of … Continue reading Epigenetic study methodologies improved in 2017

Does a societal mandate cause DNA methylation?

This 2017 worldwide meta-analysis of humans of recent European ancestry found: “Here we provide evidence on the associations between epigenetic modifications-in our case, CpG methylation and educational attainment (EA), a biologically distal environmental factor that is arguably among the most important life-shaping experiences for individuals. Specifically, we report the results of an epigenome-wide association study [EWAS] … Continue reading Does a societal mandate cause DNA methylation?

Epigenetic effects on genetic diseases

This 2017 review provided evidence for epigenetic effects on a disease widely considered to be of genetic origins: “..for a T1D [type 1 diabetes] identical twin the concordance rate (both twins affected) consistently less than 100%, which implies a non-genetically determined effect. However, the concordance rate declines with age at diagnosis of the index twin, … Continue reading Epigenetic effects on genetic diseases

A followup study of DNA methylation and age

This 2016 Finnish human study was a followup to A study of DNA methylation and age: “At the 2.55-year follow-up, we identified 19 mortality-associated CpG sites that mapped to genes functionally clustering around the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) complex. None of the mortality-associated CpG sites overlapped with the established aging-associated DNAm sites. Our results … Continue reading A followup study of DNA methylation and age

A skin study that could have benefited from preregistration

This 2016 German human skin study found: “An age-related erosion of DNA methylation patterns that is characterized by a reduced dynamic range and increased heterogeneity of global methylation patterns. These changes in methylation variability were accompanied by a reduced connectivity of transcriptional networks.” The study could have benefited from preregistration using an approach such as … Continue reading A skin study that could have benefited from preregistration

Gene therapy by DNA methylation using CRISPR-Cas9

This 2016 Croatian human cell study was a proof-of-concept to induce specific DNA methylation of two genes: “In this work we have created and characterized a novel CRISPR-Cas9-based epigenome editing tool, the dCas9-DNMT3A, which enabled targeted and specific CpG methylation at the promoter of two loci, the BACH2 and the IL6ST. We have demonstrated the … Continue reading Gene therapy by DNA methylation using CRISPR-Cas9

Using an epigenetic clock with children

This 2015 UK human study by many of the coauthors of What’s the origin of the problem of being fat? applied the Horvath epigenetic clock method to the same UK mother-child pairs and a Danish cohort: “There has been no investigation on prenatal and antenatal factors that affect AA [age acceleration] in children. It is … Continue reading Using an epigenetic clock with children