Cell senescence and DNA methylation

This 2018 Baltimore cell study found: “Based on similarities in overall methylation patterns in replicative senescence and cancers, it is hypothesized that tumor-promoting DNA methylation in cancers derives from cells escaping senescence. We show that the tumor-associated methylation changes evolve independently of senescence and are pro-survival events with functional implications contrasting that in senescence. In … Continue reading Cell senescence and DNA methylation

Using an epigenetic clock to distinguish cellular aging from senescence

The 2016 UK/UCLA human study found: “Induction of replicative senescence (RS) and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) are accompanied by ageing of the cell. However, senescence induced by DNA damage is not, even though RS and OIS activate the cellular DNA damage response pathway, highlighting the independence of senescence from cellular ageing. We used primary endothelial cells … Continue reading Using an epigenetic clock to distinguish cellular aging from senescence

Epigenetic effects of breast cancer treatments

This 2018 UC San Diego review subject was the interplay between breast cancer treatments and their effects on aging: “Although current breast cancer treatments are largely successful in producing cancer remission and extending lifespan, there is concern that these treatments may have long lasting detrimental effects on cancer survivors, in part, through their impact on … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of breast cancer treatments

The epigenetic clock theory of aging

My 400th blog post curates a 2018 US/UK paper by two of the coauthors of Using an epigenetic clock to distinguish cellular aging from senescence. The authors reviewed the current state of epigenetic clock research, and proposed a new theory of aging: “The proposed epigenetic clock theory of ageing views biological ageing as an unintended … Continue reading The epigenetic clock theory of aging

The purpose of epigenetic mechanisms

The concluding remarks of this 2018 Chinese review were: “Using heterochromatin as a model, we have reviewed here the mechanisms behind the establishment and maintenance of silent chromatin domains. We conclude that almost every component of the chromatin environment, including DNA elements, RNAs, histones and other chromatin proteins, plays a role in the process of … Continue reading The purpose of epigenetic mechanisms

The influence of donor age on induced pluripotent stem cell functionality

This 2018 German review subject was the influence of donor age on induced pluripotent stem cell functionality: “Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) avoid many of the restrictions that hamper the application of human embryonic stem cells..Also, the donor’s clinical phenotype is often known when working with iPSCs. Typical signs of cellular ageing are reverted in … Continue reading The influence of donor age on induced pluripotent stem cell functionality

Epigenetic mechanisms regulate bone growth

This 2017 Baltimore/China rodent study found: “MSPC [Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell] senescence is epigenetically controlled by the polycomb histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) and its trimethylation of histone H3 on Lysine 27 (H3K27me3) mark. Ezh2 maintains the repression of key cell senescence inducer genes through H3K27me3. Our work establishes the role of Ezh2-H3K27me3 … Continue reading Epigenetic mechanisms regulate bone growth

Epigenetic effects of cruciferous vegetable compounds

This 2017 German review discussed the results of many of the studies performed over the past thirty years investigating the health-promoting effects of cruciferous vegetable compounds: “SFN [sulforaphane] [is] the ITC [isothiocyanate] that is the most extensively studied for its chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, as well as in vivo. Due to the reversible … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of cruciferous vegetable compounds

Lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects

This 2016 Finnish review’s subject was the epigenetic effects of hypoxia: “Ever since the Cambrian period, oxygen availability has been in the center of energy metabolism. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. There are several other … Continue reading Lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects

The current paradigm of child abuse limits pre-childhood causal research

As an adult, what would be your primary concern if you suspected that your early life had something to do with current problems? Would you be interested in effective treatments for causes of your symptoms? Such information wasn’t available in this 2016 Miami review of the effects of child abuse. The review laid out the … Continue reading The current paradigm of child abuse limits pre-childhood causal research