Tailoring measurements for broccoli sprouts

To follow up two points of Lab analyses of broccoli sprout compounds:

3. Without knowing the broccoli sprouts’ cultivar, could a person infer from a glucoraphanin amount how much sulforaphane they would consume?

No. The 2014 Iron Man 5.2 μmol per g glucoraphanin wasn’t that different from the 2015 Sirtaki 5.4 amount. But Iron Man vs. Sirtaki differences of 0.3 vs. 0.6 μmol per g sulforaphane amounts and 5% vs. 11% hydrolyzed showed Sirtaki cultivar had double or more those of Iron Man.

4. Could a person infer from a mature broccoli glucoraphanin amount anything about its broccoli sprout glucoraphanin amount, or vice versa?

No. The Sirtaki 8.0 μmol per g sprout glucoraphanin amount was the highest cultivar, but its fully developed head was lowest at 0.27.


Studies often tailor their measurements to interests of either their sponsor or audience. This tailoring may leave gaps in what people outside of their target audience want to know.

Item 3 showed that sprout glucoraphanin amount can’t be relied upon to infer sprout sulforaphane amount because the hydrolysis process may be cultivar specific. The 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have the optimal yields study showed this result was also true using seed glucoraphanin and sulforaphane measurements.

Item 4 showed cultivar comparative measurements of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane made with broccoli florets may be the opposite of broccoli seed and sprout measurements. We should use studies that measured compounds in broccoli seeds and / or sprouts because we’re interested in eating broccoli sprouts.


A problem arises when studies compare cultivars using seed or sprout glucoraphanin but not also sulforaphane. We can’t ignore Item 3’s findings and automatically prefer a cultivar that has a higher glucoraphanin amount.

Repeating a point from Estimating daily consumption of broccoli sprout compounds, broccoli seeds and sprouts contain little or no sulforaphane. They have glucoraphanin and myrosinase enzyme which are structurally separated. Disturbing their cells mixes the two, and the enzyme hydrolyzes glucoraphanin and other glucosinolates into sulforaphane and other healthy compounds.

So if a study’s processing is what creates sulforaphane, what can we do with study findings if researchers didn’t bother to also measure that sulforaphane? I’ll guess that substantial differences in glucoraphanin seed or sprout amounts could be used as rough guides for sulforaphane amounts.

Looking at the above 2014 sprout amounts, a Iron Man 5.2 vs. Marathon 4.0 μmol per g glucoraphanin difference didn’t result in their 0.3 sulforaphane amounts being different. As a rough guide for home gardens, a 1.3 (5.2 / 4.0) ratio could be used as a threshold.

Broccoli seed glucoraphanin amounts in this 2004 table from Glucoraphanin and 4-Hydroxyglucobrassicin Contents in Seeds of 59 Cultivars of Broccoli, Raab, Kohlrabi, Radish, Cauliflower, Brussels Sprouts, Kale, and Cabbage (not freely available) are sorted by higher-to-lower glucoraphanin (GR) amounts per cultivar. Marathon can be found at 59.81 μmol per g. A threshold of 78 μmol per g (59.81 x 1.3) would roughly guide planting cultivars Premium Crop down to Monterey, depending on their availability 16 years later in 2020.

We’d like to plant broccoli cultivars that have laboratory results so we could expect comparatively higher sulforaphane from their seeds and sprouts. I’ve contacted broccoli seed suppliers for commercial growers and home gardeners, and asked them for lab evidence of their offered cultivar’s sulforaphane contents. Haven’t received responses yet. When they respond, we’ll have to clarify whether those lab results are from seeds or tailored to mature plant’s florets in order for us to reliably use them.

Broccoli seeds intended for commercial growers and home gardeners are prohibitively expensive for home sprouting. If such a supplier did sell in bulk at much lower prices, unless otherwise specified, seeds are expected to be treated with insecticides, fungicides, dyes or bulking agents.

Home sprouting has to deal with unknown cultivar, unknown glucoraphanin, and unknown sulforaphane. Even so, I’ve documented good results from eating broccoli sprouts every day for 8 weeks. Worst-case estimates of 20.71 mg sulforaphane without microwaving and 29.86 mg sulforaphane with microwaving in 3-day-old broccoli sprouts still fit within:

“The daily SFN [sulforaphane] dose found to achieve beneficial outcomes in most of the available clinical trials is around 20-40 mg.”

Current growing and preparation processes of microwaving to achieve 60°C, transferring broccoli sprouts to a strainer, and allowing further myrosinase hydrolization of glucoraphanin into sulforaphane compensate for some degree of these uncertainties. It would still be better, though, to know which cultivar is purchased along with lab reports of its compounds’ characteristics.

Let’s say that one day, bulk broccoli seed suppliers start advertising something past buzzwords, like cultivated variety (and Calabrese isn’t a cultivar). We have Marathon in both a lab analysis and a seed glucoraphanin list to help inform our decisions. Would I pay extra for seeds of cultivars substantially below Marathon like common cultivars DeCicco and Waltham 29? No, I’m doing fine changing my phenotype despite unknowns. The advertised cultivar would have to be substantially above Marathon in the glucoraphanin list to consider a purchase.

Week 8 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts

To follow up Week 7 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts:

1. I changed practices per Enhancing sulforaphane content. After microwaving to achieve 60°C, I now transfer broccoli sprouts to a strainer, and allow further myrosinase hydrolization of glucoraphanin and other glucosinolates into sulforaphane and other healthy compounds. I previously cooled them immediately.

They taste better, too, and I stopped putting mustard in them to make them more palatable. What does letting 3-day-old broccoli sprouts cool down by themselves to increase sulforaphane do that makes them more agreeable?

Despite improving yields two weeks ago, 3-day-old broccoli sprouts started from two tablespoons of broccoli seeds still fit into a Corning Ware 16 fl. oz. / 473 ml container:

2. I made worst-case estimates in Estimating daily consumption of broccoli sprout compounds of 20.71 mg sulforaphane without microwaving and 29.86 mg sulforaphane with microwaving in 3-day-old broccoli sprouts. They fit within:

“The daily SFN [sulforaphane] dose found to achieve beneficial outcomes in most of the available clinical trials is around 20-40 mg.”

The post’s point was: how can a person guide their actions with evidence when a broccoli cultivated variety’s beneficial characteristics aren’t known? I’ll repeat a sulforaphane yields graphic from the 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have the optimal yields study for examples of unknowns:

A. If sulforaphane content was a consumer’s overriding concern. the above evidence suggests that it would be better to always eat the seeds of an unknown cultivar. A tablespoon seems like a good choice, but be sure to chew the broccoli seeds thoroughly (try for five minutes) to release myrosinase.

The first minute goes alright. Sometime after that, your mouth and the back of your throat starts to burn. That will be a reminder of an evolved function that protects plants from predators.

I haven’t successfully swallowed a mouthful of thoroughly chewed broccoli seeds without also eating something else or drinking more than just water. That might not go along with your plan for a snack or eating before bedtime.

B. The study recommended consuming 3-day-old sprouts because:

Although germination reduces SF [sulforaphane] yield to some extent, it is beneficial to the formation and accumulation of total phenol and flavonoids, ensuring the health properties of sprouts.”

Fine, but if your unknown cultivar’s sulforaphane characteristics look like the third cultivar’s 3-day-old sprouts, you’ll have a 53% reduction in the sulforaphane weight. Should you take a 1-in-6 chance with Day 5 sprouts? Or stick with Day 3, guessing that they may still yield more sulforaphane than 3 of the 5 other cultivars’ Day 3 broccoli sprouts?

C. What if you can’t stomach the appearance of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts per the above photo, and you prefer microgreens? Should you wait until Day 7, and take a 1-in-6 chance that your unknown cultivar’s characteristics are like the highest Day 7 of the fourth cultivar? When you roll the die, does it come up 4?

Broccoli seed bulk suppliers aren’t providing evidence for their products and educating customers. Their marketing strategy depends more on buzzwords and price.

3. I compared lab reports of 3 broccoli sprouts’ cultivars in Lab analyses of broccoli sprout compounds to see if they helped rationally deal with these unknowns. It turned out that not much could be accurately inferred from lab reports, past knowing that broccoli sprouts of one cultivar produced more sulforaphane than another.

I haven’t found studies of cultivar characteristics for items I could actually purchase in bulk. I contacted five small US and Canadian suppliers to ask “Do you sell broccoli seeds that have lab evidence of the cultivar’s sulforaphane content?” Two said no so far. I contacted another supplier for the home garden business who has two dozen cultivars listed for sale and asked them the same question.

None of the broccoli seed bulk suppliers specified the cultivar on their offering. When pressed on Amazon they at best said Calabrese, which has described hundreds of cultivars. Such as two in this study, Iron Man and Marathon, which are also named Calabrese Iron Man F1 and Calabrese Marathon F1.

4. I’ve had only sporadic inflammation, and I’m tempted to write anecdotes of positive things. But self-reports are better evidence for emotions than for other internal events.

See Week 9 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts for follow ups.

Estimating daily consumption of broccoli sprout compounds

Rainy day thought for the 13th week of lockdown: What are methods of estimating the minimum contents of broccoli sprouts for those of us who aren’t willing to turn their kitchen into a laboratory?

With the 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have the optimal yields study as a reference, minimum values of the six broccoli cultivated varieties studied were:

  1. Lowest weight of 100 seeds: .33 grams.
  2. 100 of that cultivar’s 3-day-old sprouts weighed 1.55 grams.
  3. A different cultivar had the lowest total phenolics (gallic acid equivalents): 0.94 mg per gram of 3-day-old sprouts.
  4. That second cultivar also had the lowest total flavonoids (rutin equivalents): 1.02 mg per gram of 3-day-old sprouts.
  5. A third cultivar had the lowest weight of sulforaphane in its seeds: 2.43 mg per gram of seeds.
  6. Reduction of sulforaphane content during germination from seeds to 3-day-old sprouts is evident from the below chart. The only 3-day-old sprout chart number the study provided was the best case, though. I requested the study data, but in the meantime..I enlarged the chart, measured the worst cultivar as a 8.5 cm bar where the seed bar was 16 cm. Its 3-day-old sprout sulforaphane yield was ~53% of its seed yield.

sprout ages 1B

Another caveat for contents: Researchers had to process broccoli seeds and 3-day-old broccoli sprouts in order to make measurements. Total phenolics and total flavonoids may not have been affected by processing. However, processing generated sulforaphane.

Broccoli seeds and 3-day-old broccoli sprouts contain little or no sulforaphane. They have glucoraphanin and myrosinase enzyme which are structurally separated. Disturbing their cells mixes the two, and the enzyme hydrolyzes glucoraphanin and other glucosinolates into sulforaphane and other healthy compounds.


I start out each daily batch with two tablespoons of broccoli seeds of an unknown cultivar. I counted 812 broccoli seeds in a teaspoon (yes, I did), and multiplied by 6 for 4,872 total seeds.

Runt-of-the-litter calculations for the six broccoli cultivars studied are:

  • (4,872 / 100) x .33 g = 16.08 g broccoli seeds
  • (4,872 / 100) x 1.55 g =75.52 g 3-day-old broccoli sprouts
  • 75.52 x 0.94 mg per gram of 3-day-old sprouts = 70.99 mg total phenolics
  • 75.52 x 1.02 mg per gram of 3-day-old sprouts = 77.03 mg total flavonoids
  • 16.08 g broccoli seeds x 2.43 mg per gram of seeds = 39.07 mg sulforaphane
  • 39.07 mg x 53% = 20.71 mg sulforaphane in 3-day-old broccoli sprouts without microwaving them.

I’ll use the Microwave broccoli to increase sulforaphane levels study as a reference for an alternate sulforaphane calculation. The cultivar wasn’t mentioned, only that it was ordinary broccoli purchased in Silver Spring, Maryland, grocery stores.

One assumption is that microwaving broccoli sprouts will have the same effects as microwaving broccoli florets to increase sulforaphane content. Are the similarities between broccoli floret and broccoli sprout characteristics enough to say whether or not that’s a valid assumption?

Another assumption is that there’s no beginning amount of sulforaphane in 3-day-old broccoli sprouts. Microwaving them on full power to 60°C produces all of the sulforaphane.

A third assumption is that the sulforaphane increase from .22 to 2.45 µmol / g of the tested cultivar fairly represents other broccoli cultivars.

Combining this with the worst-case calculated weight of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts in the first study:

((2.45 – .22 µmol / g)

x 75.52 g 3-day-old broccoli sprouts)

/ 5.64 μmol conversion of amount to weight

= 29.86 mg sulforaphane


Sulforaphane: Its “Coming of Age” as a Clinically Relevant Nutraceutical in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disease concluded:

“The daily SFN [sulforaphane] dose found to achieve beneficial outcomes in most of the available clinical trials is around 20-40 mg.”

I’ll guess that my daily consumption of broccoli sprout compounds is at least in this clinical trial range with worst-case calculations of 20.71 mg sulforaphane without microwaving and 29.86 mg sulforaphane with microwaving in 3-day-old broccoli sprouts. I’ll include this estimate in Week 8 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts.

Broccoli seed suppliers are missing a marketing opportunity by not specifying their cultivars. They could be advertising specific benefits, etc.

The first study showed that sulforaphane contents vary widely among broccoli cultivars, from the 2.43 mg used above to 12.07 mg per gram of seeds. If your product was almost 5 times better than a competitor’s, why wouldn’t you advertise it?

Week 7 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts

To follow up Week 6 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts:

1. I changed the title of this week’s update as a result of reading the study in A rejuvenation therapy and sulforaphane. The study wasn’t about sulforaphane, but its clinical findings had commonalities with this broccoli sprouts effort. It’s become the blog’s most popular post, read by people in 50+ countries.

A close second is An environmental signaling paradigm of aging. The study’s lead laboratory researcher presented his view five years ago on where aging evidence was pointing.

Part 2 of Rejuvenation therapy and sulforaphane better curated the study’s innovative epigenetic clock results. There are no sulforaphane clinical trials that also use epigenetic clocks.

What are the effects that broccoli sprouts and their compounds may have on human aging? With this new human-rat relative biological age clock, researchers can get reliable answers from rat studies, with human clinical trials needed only to confirm those findings!

2. This week I found out that exercising control over my charges to protect them from disease was counterproductive. I exposed them to harm, destroyed their community, and stunted their growth by forcing them to distance from each other for their own good.

Am I a politician, an unelected bureaucrat, or some other form of busybody? No. I admit my mistakes right away, I apologize, then I immediately try to do better.

A proper context:

  • In Week 2 I switched from sprouting trays with 1/16″ high ridges in the bottom to Russian-doll bowls. That solved a problem of excess moisture, with which broccoli sprouts don’t do well but bacteria do.
  • In Week 3 I rotated in the next larger sized bowl to replace the smallest bowl. My thought was that Day 3 broccoli sprouts were too crowded to dry in the smallest bowl.
  • At the end of Week 5 I doubled the starting amount of broccoli seeds from one to two tablespoons. To accommodate that increase, I again rotated in the next larger size bowl to replace the smallest bowl.

Starting in Week 6, I had uneven batch yields. The two larger bowls yielded noticeably fewer sprouts than did batches in the two smaller bowls.

What did bowl size have to do with yield? Nothing, it was me. It turned out I’d neglected Plant Care 101 instructions to provide adequate moisture.

After rinsing, straining, and wicking out excess moisture with a paper towel twice daily, I then spread out the seeds and sprouts to prevent problems with excess moisture. The broccoli seeds and sprouts in the two larger bowls were more separated than in the two smaller bowls.

All of which led to moisture levels that were inadequate for broccoli seeds and sprouts. All batches sprouted less well than their potential yield. The larger the bowl, the more my behavior adversely affected the batch.

Here’s what Day 2 and Day 3 yields were with my previous practices.  The batch volume of Day 2 in the smaller bowl was larger than Day 3’s:

I changed practices to group broccoli seeds and sprouts together at the step where I used to spread them out. Here’s the same bowl with my current practice, but at Day 2. The photo may not show it well, but it’s a larger volume than the previous practice’s Day 2:

I’ll guess that batch yield volumes have improved by 60% 75%. I increased distilled water from 100 ml to 160 175 ml before microwaving since 100 ml no longer completely immersed the increased Day 3 broccoli sprout volume. My 1000W full power microwave time concomitantly increased from 45 seconds to 70 seconds to achieve 58°C.

The better-developed batches also taste better. I still mix in mustard and eat Day 3 broccoli sprouts with other food.

3. My sulforaphane intake has probably decreased with the current practice. The 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have the optimal yields study said:

Although germination reduces SF [sulforaphane] yield to some extent, it is beneficial to the formation and accumulation of total phenol and flavonoids, ensuring the health properties of sprouts. SF contents in sprouts were 46% – 97% of seeds, whereas TP [total phenolic] and TF [total flavonoid] contents in sprouts were 1.12 – 3.58 times higher than seeds among [broccoli] varieties.”

I’m not concerned about less sulforaphane with a two tablespoons starting amount of broccoli seeds. Even a one tablespoon starting amount yields 60 g of broccoli sprouts, twice that of the model clinical trial, Effects of long-term consumption of broccoli sprouts on inflammatory markers in overweight subjects. See our discussion in Understanding a clinical trial’s broccoli sprout amount.

4. Another week of no inflammatory problems after four-to-six-mile-long beach walks. I’m not pushing myself, just walking often, and working out my upper body every fourth day.

I emphasize the eccentric motion in upper body workouts. I haven’t curated the below 2019 papers although they’re informative:

I don’t expect recovery times from workouts to shorten. What’s an appropriate exercise recovery time? found with 26.5 ± 6.5 year-old male subjects that even three days wasn’t enough time for the biceps brachii to fully recover from eccentric exercise.

5. During Friday’s walk I accidentally startled a large turkey hen who was on the ground, and she flew up on a fence. Can you see her moments before she hopped down to the other side?

Don’t have any idea what bugs a turkey found attractive near a beach.

See Week 8 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts for follow ups.

Week 6 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts

To follow up Week 5 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts:

1. I had an informative exchange with an author of Microwave broccoli to increase sulforaphane levels. The study provided an optimal sulforaphane end result of “(2.45 µmol/g DW)”. I asked a study author for additional data, and they replied:

“The control GLR and SLR amount was 2.18 and 0.22 µmol/g DW, respectively, while the HL60 GLR amount was 2.78 µmol/g DW.”

Microwaving broccoli florets to 60°C (140°F) increased the sulforaphane amount by 1,114% (2.45 / .22)! That also increased the glucoraphanin amount by 27% (2.78 / 2.18) for further processing into sulforaphane after eating.

I replied: That’s an exciting result, increasing sulforaphane more than 11 times, while also increasing glucoraphanin! I haven’t found similar experiments with broccoli sprouts. Would you expect similar results?

The study author responded:

“We didn’t expect this result, and think microwave irradiation might help to release more conjugated forms of glucosinolates and then get hydrolyzed by released myrosinase. Further studies are being carried out.”

2. I stopped panning out spent broccoli seed coats. The 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have the optimal yields study didn’t directly address coats, and coats were presumably discarded before broccoli sprout analyses.

However, since broccoli seeds were ground, coats were part of broccoli seed analyses. Broccoli seeds had higher sulforaphane weights than did broccoli sprouts. So 3-day-old spent broccoli seed coats probably don’t reduce sulforaphane amounts.

“The SF [sulforaphane] contents were calculated and expressed by mg SF per gram of seeds or fresh sprouts. Furthermore, to be comparable with the seeds, the contents of SF and the following bioactive compounds in 100 fresh sprouts were divided by the weight of 100 seeds and then the contents of bioactive compounds in fresh sprout were expressed as mg per gram of seeds.

Although germination reduces SF yield to some extent, it is beneficial to the formation and accumulation of total phenol and flavonoids, ensuring the health properties of sprouts. SF contents in sprouts were 46% – 97% of seeds, whereas TP [total phenolic] and TF [total flavonoid] contents in sprouts were 1.12 – 3.58 times higher than seeds among varieties.”

3. Doubling the starting amount of broccoli seeds from one to two tablespoons is going well. My wonderful woman’s latest measurement of the yield for a batch of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts was 84.6 grams. She immersed the broccoli sprouts in 350 ml water and microwaved them on full 1000W power for 2 minutes to achieve 61°C.

I put daily batches in 100 ml distilled water, and microwaved on full 1000W power for 45 seconds to achieve 58°C. For comparison with the 3-day-old point of starting with one tablespoon of broccoli seeds, that took 35 seconds to achieve 57°C.

Two tablespoons of broccoli seeds produce a lot of broccoli sprouts for me to eat in a single serving. I mix in spicy brown mustard after microwaving and cooling them down. It complements the taste and makes them more palatable. The mixture goes better with a meal than eating it by itself.

4. Not sure what went on with last week’s inflammatory problems after four-to-six-mile-long beach walks. I did similar walks on Thursday and Saturday, and didn’t have those problems afterwards.

Did a small amount of running in Weeks 3 and 4 trigger something? Did my body adapt to a one tablespoon starting amount of broccoli seeds dosage, such that it wasn’t effective anymore?

Did raising the starting amount of broccoli seeds to two tablespoons cause the problems to quiet down this week? Or was the quiescence because I didn’t run even a short distance? This week’s occasional left ankle / left knee twinge makes me think that running, like golf, may not be a future activity.

5. I intend to follow the model clinical trial Effects of long-term consumption of broccoli sprouts on inflammatory markers in overweight subjects curated in How much sulforaphane is suitable for healthy people? and measure IL-6 and C-reactive protein after Week 10. These two weren’t among the 50+ measurements taken during last June’s annual physical, so I’ll request them along with HbA1c.

6. I credit my son for getting me started on the current investigation into broccoli sprouts. He repeatedly asked me for evidence of minimum effective sulforaphane dosage. Still haven’t found complete answers.

The treatments mentioned in Week 1, and the unmentioned months of physical therapy and years of periodic cortisone injections hadn’t worked. I could have been doing more to better address the causes of a long-term problem rather than just treat the symptoms. Now I am, thank you.

See Week 7 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts for follow ups.

Week 5 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts

To follow up Week 4 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts:

1. I didn’t get around to curating a 2019 Spanish review Sorting out the Value of Cruciferous Sprouts as Sources of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition and Health. Some highlights:

“Sprouts represent a valuable source of diverse micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, and amino acids), macronutrients (proteins, low in carbohydrates, and a high content of dietary fiber), and plant secondary metabolites (mainly phenolic compounds and glucosinolates (GLSs)). Due to this composition, edible sprouts are a valuable vehicle and opportunity to impact health, delivering beneficial bioactive compounds once incorporated in the diet on a regular basis.

This range of molecular mechanisms, which is susceptible to activation or inhibition by the GLSs, ITCs [isothiocyanates], and (poly)phenols present in cruciferous sprouts triggers diverse pathways governed by the expression of a broad variety of genes. Among them, to date, the following pathways have been identified:

  • Inhibition of the DNA binding of carcinogens,
  • Stimulation of detoxification of potentially damaging compounds,
  • DNA repair,
  • Repression of cell proliferation and angiogenesis (directly related to tumor growth and metastasis),
  • Induction of apoptosis of malignant cells, and
  • Ability to enhance the antioxidant tools of cells and promote free radical scavenging.

Regarding this biological activity, the modulation of the inflammatory cascade, and more specifically, the transcription factor NF-κB by GLSs, ITCs, and (poly)phenols, are also involved in the anticancer activity.”


See these reviewers’ 2020 Reviewing clinical trials of broccoli sprouts and their compounds for further examples of why “Not determined” frequently occurred.

2. Inflammatory problems mentioned in Week 1 twinged throughout Week 5 and flared up yesterday. I didn’t run during my four-to-six-mile-long beach walks this week in case that aggravated things.

Not sure what’s going on, because these problems were quiescent during Weeks 3 and 4 with the same levels of exercise and diet. Maybe this development was a result of homeostatic adjustments to the previous month’s daily broccoli sprout dosage?

Two days ago I began doubling the starting amount of broccoli seeds from one to two tablespoons. I’ll see what effects eating 120 grams of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have during the coming week.

3. I was stonewalled twice by a commercial supplier of broccoli sprout powder who advertised:

“Independent assays confirm that EnduraCELL yields more Sulforaphane per gram and per dose than any other broccoli sprout ingredient available! These assays showed that EnduraCell yields around 3.5 times more SULFORAPHANE than the next highest broccoli sprout product.”

They wouldn’t provide evidence of their claim to a prospective customer.

Sulforaphane is immediately produced by combining glucoraphanin and myrosinase. Sulforaphane degrades relatively quickly, and requires special handling in commercial products. Broccoli sprouts produced and consumed at home also deliver ITCs such as diindolylmethane (DIM) mentioned in Week 1, and polyphenols.

It costs me very little to grow broccoli sprouts, < $0.50 USD per day. Could a commercial product even deliver equivalent benefits at a competitive price?

4. I reactivated my Twitter account after a year’s dormancy. I credit my wonderful woman for having better things to do. I blame this political power grab for me becoming bored enough to be herded back onto Twitter.

Week 4 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts

To follow up Week 3 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts:

1. I started panning 3-day-old broccoli sprouts before microwaving them in 100 ml of water with a 1000 W microwave on full power for 35 seconds. See Week 6 of Changing an inflammatory phenotype with broccoli sprouts for why I stopped panning. This is a typical yield from one tablespoon of broccoli seeds:

Before panning
After panning

If I have fewer broccoli sprouts, I did something to stunt their normal development.

Still not sure that spent broccoli seed coats cause heartburn as mentioned last week. Being locked down for months – or drinking a lot of coffee and tea – may have more to do with it.

2. I continue to see encouraging signs. Made four-to-six-mile-long beach walks Friday, yesterday, and today, and haven’t felt any left-ankle or left-knee inflammation afterwards! Ran a mile yesterday for the first time in a long time, though, and my quads are sore.

3. More often than not, this is my AGE-less dinner (half) then the next day for lunch. I adapted it from pages 198 (Chicken with Lemon-Caper Sauce) and 238 (Homestyle Chicken Soup) of Dr. Vlassara’s AGE-Less Diet: How a Chemical in the Foods We Eat Promotes Disease, Obesity, and Aging and the Steps We Can Take to Stop It.

  • 1 organic lemon
  • 1 organic tomato
  • 2 organic carrots
  • 3 stalks organic celery
  • 4 organic mushrooms
  • 4 cloves organic garlic
  • 6 oz. organic chicken breast fillet
  • 1 cup organic pasta
  • 1 cup frozen organic peas
  • 1 cup sauvignon blanc
  • 32 oz. “unsalted” chicken broth, which still contains 24% of the sodium RDA
  • 2 tablespoons drained capers
  • ground black pepper to taste

Peel the lemon, slice into 1/4″ rounds, de-seed, combine with chicken and wine in a 6-quart Instant Pot.

Add tomato, carrots, celery, mushrooms, garlic, chicken broth. Start a 30-minute Saute.

Take the chicken out at Minute 20, dice it, add back in with the pasta. Add peas at Minute 25. Add capers and pepper five minutes after the Instant Pot turns off.

4. My AGE-less breakfast is 1/2 cup steel-cut oats soaked overnight in 2 cups distilled water. Cook for 18 minutes at 80% power in a 1000W microwave. Eat with a handful of walnuts.


Boring, I know. Waiting for young people to shrug off their behavioral conditioning and lead the way out.

“The angrier you got, the more silly it became. Then you just found yourself in a bigger cage.

We live in a world now of social media where you can say something stupid and get a bunch of attention. But now you’re just imprisoned in some other paradigm.”