Sleep and adult brain neurogenesis

This 2018 Japan/Detroit review subject was the impact of sleep and epigenetic modifications on adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis: “We discuss the functions of adultā€born DG neurons, describe the epigenetic regulation of adult DG neurogenesis, identify overlaps in how sleep and epigenetic modifications impact adult DG neurogenesis and memory consolidation.. Whereas the rate of DG neurogenesis … Continue reading Sleep and adult brain neurogenesis

A mid-year selection of epigenetic topics

Here are the most popular of the 65 posts I’ve made so far in 2018, starting from the earliest: The pain societies instill into children DNA methylation and childhood adversity Epigenetic mechanisms of muscle memory Sex-specific impacts of childhood trauma Sleep and adult brain neurogenesis This dietary supplement is better for depression symptoms than placebo … Continue reading A mid-year selection of epigenetic topics

An emotional center of our brains

This 2018 McGill/UC San Diego rodent study subject was the dentate gyrus area of the hippocampus: “Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent … Continue reading An emotional center of our brains

A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

This December 2016 Australian review published in September 2017 concerned: “..the nutritional psychiatry field..the neurobiological mechanisms likely modulated by diet, the use of dietary and nutraceutical interventions in mental disorders, and recommendations for further research.” The reviewers inexplicably omitted acetyl-L-carnitine, which I first covered in A common dietary supplement that has rapid and lasting antidepressant … Continue reading A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

Use it or lose it: the interplay of new brain cells, age, and activity

This 2015 German review was of aging and activity in the context of adult neurogenesis: “Adult neurogenesis might be of profound functional significance because it occurs at a strategic bottleneck location in the hippocampus. Age-dependent changes essentially reflect a unidirectional development in that everything builds on what has occurred before. In this sense, aging can … Continue reading Use it or lose it: the interplay of new brain cells, age, and activity

The mystery of humans’ evolved capability for adults to grow new brain cells

This 2016 German review discussed the evolution of human adult neurogenesis: “Mammalian adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a trait shaped by evolutionary forces that have contributed to the advantages in natural selection that are associated with the mammalian dentate gyrus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mammals originates from an ectopic precursor cell population that resides in a … Continue reading The mystery of humans’ evolved capability for adults to grow new brain cells

A molecular study of the epigenetic regulation of memory

This 2015 Norwegian rodent study provided: “New insights into the molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity. We report the first global transcriptome [all RNA found in specific cells] analysis of in vivo synaptic plasticity, using the well-established model of LTP [long-term potentiation, an increase in synaptic strength that underlies memory] in the rat dentate gyrus [a … Continue reading A molecular study of the epigenetic regulation of memory

Genetic causes for epigenetic symptoms

This 2015 human summary study was of 44 genetic disorders that disrupt the maintenance of epigenetic modifications: “..making them likely to have significant downstream epigenetic consequences. Interestingly, these patients often demonstrate neurological dysfunction, suggesting that precise epigenetic regulation may be critical for neuronal homeostasis. However, at the same time, it is important to keep in … Continue reading Genetic causes for epigenetic symptoms

Another factor in producing new brain neurons in the adult hippocampus

This 2015 New York rodent study provided further details on the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. The researchers found that a protein that regulated a glutamate receptor also: “Significantly influences hippocampal neurogenesis and that both the proliferation and survival of newborn neurons are impaired in the absence.” The study showed: “The effect … Continue reading Another factor in producing new brain neurons in the adult hippocampus

Epigenetic production of new brain neurons in the hippocampus

This 2015 La Jolla rodent study provided further details on the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus: “We propose that SOX2 sets a permissive epigenetic state in neural progenitor cells, thus enabling proper activation of the neuronal differentiation program under neurogenic cue.” The researchers stated that the functions of these new brain neurons … Continue reading Epigenetic production of new brain neurons in the hippocampus