1. I had an informative exchange with an author of Microwave broccoli to increase sulforaphane levels. The study provided an optimal sulforaphane end result of “(2.45 µmol/g DW)”. I asked a study author for additional data, and they replied:
“The control GLR and SLR amount was 2.18 and 0.22 µmol/g DW, respectively, while the HL60 GLR amount was 2.78 µmol/g DW.”
Microwaving broccoli florets to 60°C (140°F) increased the sulforaphane amount by 1,114% (2.45 / .22)! That also increased the glucoraphanin amount by 27% (2.78 / 2.18) for further processing into sulforaphane after eating.
I replied: That’s an exciting result, increasing sulforaphane more than 11 times, while also increasing glucoraphanin! I haven’t found similar experiments with broccoli sprouts. Would you expect similar results?
The study author responded:
“We didn’t expect this result, and think microwave irradiation might help to release more conjugated forms of glucosinolates and then get hydrolyzed by released myrosinase. Further studies are being carried out.”
2. I stopped panning out spent broccoli seed coats. The 3-day-old broccoli sprouts have the optimal yields study didn’t directly address coats, and coats were presumably discarded before broccoli sprout analyses.
However, since broccoli seeds were ground, coats were part of broccoli seed analyses. Broccoli seeds had higher sulforaphane weights than did broccoli sprouts. So 3-day-old spent broccoli seed coats probably don’t reduce sulforaphane amounts.
“The SF [sulforaphane] contents were calculated and expressed by mg SF per gram of seeds or fresh sprouts. Furthermore, to be comparable with the seeds, the contents of SF and the following bioactive compounds in 100 fresh sprouts were divided by the weight of 100 seeds and then the contents of bioactive compounds in fresh sprout were expressed as mg per gram of seeds.
Although germination reduces SF yield to some extent, it is beneficial to the formation and accumulation of total phenol and flavonoids, ensuring the health properties of sprouts. SF contents in sprouts were 46% – 97% of seeds, whereas TP [total phenolic] and TF [total flavonoid] contents in sprouts were 1.12 – 3.58 times higher than seeds among varieties.”
3. Doubling the starting amount of broccoli seeds from one to two tablespoons is going well. My traveling companion’s latest measurement of yield for a batch of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts was 84.6 grams. She immersed broccoli sprouts in 350 ml water and microwaved them on full 1000W power for 2 minutes to achieve 61°C.
I put daily batches in 100 ml distilled water, and microwave on full 1000W power for 45 seconds to achieve 58°C. For comparison with the 3-day-old point of starting with one tablespoon of broccoli seeds, that took 35 seconds to achieve 57°C.
Two tablespoons of broccoli seeds produce a lot of broccoli sprouts for me to eat in a single serving. I mix in spicy brown mustard after microwaving and cooling them down. It complements the taste and makes them more palatable. The mixture goes better with a meal than eating it by itself.
4. Not sure what went on with last week’s inflammatory problems after four-to-six-mile-long beach walks. I did similar walks on Thursday and Saturday, and didn’t have those problems afterwards.
Did a small amount of running in Weeks 3 and 4 trigger something? Did my body adapt to a one tablespoon starting amount of broccoli seeds dosage, such that it wasn’t effective anymore?
Did raising the starting amount of broccoli seeds to two tablespoons cause the problems to quiet down this week? Or was the quiescence because I didn’t run even a short distance? This week’s occasional left ankle / left knee twinge makes me think that running, like golf, may not be a future activity.
5. I intend to follow the model clinical trial Effects of long-term consumption of broccoli sprouts on inflammatory markers in overweight subjects curated in How much sulforaphane is suitable for healthy people? and measure IL-6 and C-reactive protein after Week 10. These two weren’t among the 50+ measurements taken during last June’s annual physical, so I’ll request them along with HbA1c.
6. I credit my son for getting me started on the current investigation into broccoli sprouts. He repeatedly asked me for evidence of minimum effective sulforaphane dosage. Still haven’t found complete answers.
The treatments mentioned in Week 1, and the unmentioned months of physical therapy and years of periodic cortisone injections hadn’t worked. I could have been doing more to better address the causes of a long-term problem rather than just treat the symptoms. Now I am, thank you.
See Week 7 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts for follow ups.