This 2019 UK review discussed delusions, aka false beliefs about reality:
“Delusions are characterized by their behavioral manifestations and defined as irrational beliefs that compromise good functioning. In this overview paper, we ask whether delusions can be adaptive notwithstanding their negative features.
We consider different types of delusions and different ways in which they can be considered as adaptive: psychologically (e.g., by increasing wellbeing, purpose in life, intrapsychic coherence, or good functioning) and biologically (e.g., by enhancing genetic fitness).”
A. Although the review section 4 heading was Biological Adaptiveness of Delusions, the reviewers never got around to discussing the evolved roles of brain areas. One mention of evolutionary biology was:
“Delusions are biologically adaptive if, as a response to a crisis of some sort (anomalous perception or overwhelming distress), they enhance a person’s chances of reproductive success and survival by conferring systematic biological benefits.”
B. Although section 5’s heading was Psychological Adaptiveness of Delusions, the reviewers didn’t connect feelings and survival sensations as origins of beliefs (delusions) and behaviors. They had a few examples of feelings:
“Delusions of reference and delusions of grandeur can make the person feel important and worthy of admiration.”
and occasionally sniffed a clue:
“Some delusions (especially so‐called motivated delusions) play a defensive function, representing the world as the person would like it to be.”
where “motivated delusions” were later deemed in the Conclusion section to be a:
“Response to negative emotions that could otherwise become overwhelming.”
C. Feelings weren’t extensively discussed until section 6 Delusions in OCD and MDD, which gave readers the impression that feelings were best associated with those diseases.
D. In the Introduction, sections 4, 5, and 7 How Do We Establish and Measure Adaptiveness, the reviewers discussed feeling meaning in life, but without understanding:
- Feelings = meaning in life, as I quoted Dr. Arthur Janov in The pain societies instill into children:
“Without feeling, life becomes empty and sterile. It, above all, loses its meaning.“
- Beliefs (delusions) defend against feelings.
- Consequentially, the stronger and more numerous beliefs (delusions) a person has, the less they feel meaning in life.
E. Where, when, why, and how do beliefs (delusions) arise? Where, when, why, and how does a person sense and feel, and what are the connections with beliefs (delusions)?
The word “sense” was used 29 times in contexts such as “make sense” and “sense of [anxiety, coherence, control, meaning, purpose, rational agency, reality, self, uncertainty]” but no framework connected biological sensing to delusions. Papers from other fields have detailed cause-and-effect explanations and precursor-successor diagrams for every step of a process.
Regarding the therapeutic value of someone else’s opinion of a patient’s delusions – I’ll reuse this quotation from the Scientific evidence page of Dr. Janov’s 2011 book “Life Before Birth: The Hidden Script that Rules Our Lives” p.166:
“Primal Therapy differs from other forms of treatment in that the patient is himself a therapist of sorts. Equipped with the insights of his history, he learns how to access himself and how to feel.
The therapist does not heal him; the therapist is only the catalyst allowing the healing forces to take place. The patient has the power to heal himself.“
Another way Dr. Janov wrote this was on p.58 of his 2016 book Beyond Belief as quoted in Beyond Belief: The impact of merciless beatings on beliefs:
“No one has the answer to life’s questions but you. How you should lead your life depends on you, not outside counsel.
We do not direct patients, nor dispense wisdom upon them. We have only to put them in touch with themselves; the rest is up to them.
Everything the patient has to learn already resides inside. The patient can make herself conscious. No one else can.”
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wcs.1502 “Are clinical delusions adaptive?”