This 2022 study investigated brain aging:
“We aimed to explore key genes underlying cognitively normal brain aging and its potential molecular mechanisms. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain aging are complex and mainly include:
- Dysfunction of mitochondria;
- Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids in brain cells;
- Disorders of energy metabolism;
- Impaired ‘waste disposal’ mechanism (autophagosome and proteasome functionality);
- Impaired signal transduction of adaptive stress response;
- Impaired DNA repair;
- Abnormal neural network activity;
- Imbalance of neuronal Ca2+ processing;
- Stem cell exhaustion; and
- Increased inflammation.
Expression of CD44, CD93, and CD163 mRNA detected by qPCR in hippocampal tissue of cognitively normal aged and young mice.
Underlying molecular mechanisms for maintaining healthy brain aging are related to decline of immune-inflammatory responses. CD44, CD93, and CD 163 are potential biomarkers.”
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2022.833402/full “Identification of Key Biomarkers and Pathways for Maintaining Cognitively Normal Brain Aging Based on Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis”