1. Proven DNA methylation features of epigenetic clocks:
- “Methylation of cytosines is undoubtedly a binary event.
- The increase in epigenetic age is contributed by changes of methylation profiles in a very small percent of cells in a population.
- The clock ticks extremely fast in early post-natal years and much slower after puberty.
- Clock CpGs have specific locations in the genome.
- It applies to prenatal biological samples and embryonic stem cells.
While consistency with all the five attributes does not guarantee veracity of a model, inconsistency with any one will signal the unlikely validity of a hypothesis.”
2. Regarding what epigenetic clocks don’t measure:
“The effects of
- Telomere maintenance,
- Cellular senescence,
- DNA damage signaling,
- Terminal differentiation and
- Cellular proliferation
have all been tested and found to be unrelated to epigenetic ageing.”
3. Regarding cyclical features:
“Both the epigenetic and circadian clocks are present in all cells of the body, but their ticking rates are regulated. Both these clocks lose synchronicity when cells are isolated from tissues and grown in vitro.
These similarities compel one to ponder potential links between them.”
This was among the points that Linear thinking about biological age clocks missed.
4. The reviewers discussed 3 of the 5 treatment elements in Reversal of aging and immunosenescent trends:
“It is not known at this stage whether the rejuvenating effect is mediated through the regeneration of the thymus or a direct effect of the treatment modality on the body. Also, it is not known if the effect is mediated by all three compounds or one or two of them.
What we know at this stage does not allow the formation of general principles regarding the impact of hormones on epigenetic age, but their involvement in development and maintenance of the body argue that they do indeed have a very significant impact on the epigenetic clock.”
Not sure why they omitted 3000 IU vitamin D and 50 mg zinc, especially since:
“It is not known if the effect is mediated by all three [five] compounds or one or two of them.”
5. They touched on the specialty of Aging as a disease researchers with:
“Muscle stem cells isolated from mice were epigenetically much younger independently of the ages of the tissue / animal from which they were derived.
The proliferation and differentiation of muscle stem cells cease upon physical maturation. These activities are initiated in adult muscles only in response to injury.“
6. The reviewers agreed with those researchers in the Conclusion:
“Epigenetic ageing begins from very early moments after the embryonic stem cell stage and continues uninterrupted through the entire lifespan. The significance of this is profound as the question of why we age has been attributed to many different things, most commonly to ‘wear-and-tear.’
The ticking of the epigenetic clock from the embryonic state challenges this perspective and supports the notion that ageing is an unintended consequence of processes that are necessary for
- The development of the organism and
- Tissue homeostasis thereafter.”
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1535370220918329 “Current perspectives on the cellular and molecular features of epigenetic ageing” (not freely available)