This 2017 UK essay was a longish review of how epigenetics and other research has informed evolutionary theory:
“There are several processes by which directed evolutionary change occurs—targeted mutation, gene transposition, epigenetics, cultural change, niche construction and adaptation.
Evolution is an ongoing set of iterative interactions between organisms and the environment..Directionality is introduced by the agency of organisms themselves.”
A few takeaway items concerned:
“It is of course the functional phenotype that is ‘seen’ by natural selection. DNA sequences are not directly available for selection other than through their functional consequences.
..the comparative failure of genome-wide association studies to reveal very much about the genetic origins of health and disease. This is one of the most important empirical findings arising from genome sequencing.
- Worldwide differences in regional disease frequencies
- Low frequency of genetic component of disease as determined with genome wide association studies (GWAS)
- Dramatic increases in disease frequencies over past decades
- Identical twins with variable and discordant disease frequency
- Environmental exposures associated with disease
- Regional differences and rapid induction events in evolution“
The above list was from the cited 2016 review “Developmental origins of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933018
I was especially interested in the points about behavior’s role in evolution:
“Differential mutation rates are not essential to enable organisms to guide their own evolution.
If organisms have agency and, within obvious limits, can choose their lifestyles, and if these lifestyles result in inheritable epigenetic changes, then it follows that organisms can at least partially make choices that can have long-term evolutionary impact.”
These discussions provided support for the central question of The PRice “equation” for individually evolving: Which equation describes your life?:
“Applying the “How does a phenotype influence its own change?” question to a person:
How can a person remedy their undesirable traits – many of which are from their ancestral phenotype – and acquire desirable traits?”
http://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/6/4/47/htm “Was the Watchmaker Blind? Or Was She One-Eyed?”