A 2021 rodent study and a blog post with 51 references investigated fat cells:
“Sulforaphane (SFN) is a potent indirect antioxidant and a promising agent for controlling metabolic disorder disease. We evaluated efficacy of SFN against high fat diet (HFD)-induced-obesity mice, and investigated potential mechanisms.
- Suppressed HFD-induced body weight gain;
- Reduced fat cell [adipocyte] size;
- Suppressed expression of key genes in adipogenesis;
- Inhibited lipid accumulation in C3H10T1/2 [pre-adipocyte] cells;
- Increased expression of brown adipocyte-specific markers and mitochondrial biogenesis in vivo and in vitro; and
- Decreased cellular and mitochondrial oxidative stress.
Gene expression profile of C3H10T1/2 cells after SFN treatment showed that SFN inhibited expression of core adipogenesis genes (Ppar-γ, Fas, Cebpβ and Scd1) and enhanced expression of browning genes (Chop, Temem 26, Ucp1, Pgc-1α, and Prdm16) in adipocyte differentiation and trans-differentiation. This result suggested possible conversion of white adipocytes into beige cells.
We report that SFN induces browning of mature C3H10T1/2 adipocytes based on promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis by means of upregulation of the AMPK and NRF2 signaling pathways, and enhancement of mitochondrial function. Our further research revealed that SFN can prevent HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6N mice by inducing browning of white adipose tissue.”
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.665894/full “The Protective Effects of Sulforaphane on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice Through Browning of White Fat”
Dr. Paul Clayton had a nuanced view of body fat and its browning:
“You can divide adipose tissue into three cell types:
- White adipocytes account for 95% of all adipocytes and have a primarily storage function;
- The primary function of brown adipocytes, which range from 1-5% depending on cold exposure and very specific types of chemo-stimulation i.e. β3-adrenergic, is generation of heat via mitochondrial uncoupling.
- Beige adipocytes are intermediate. They aren’t interspersed in depots of white adipose tissue and can transform into brown-like adipocytes following cold exposure or adrenergic stimulation.
Bone marrow adipose tissue plays an important role in haematopoiesis and bone metabolism in more than one form:
- One is located in distal bones (forearm and lower leg) and is pretty much stable;
- The other form is in spine and proximal limb bones, and is inducible by environmental factors such as cold exposure, fasting, and anaemia.
White adipose tissue can be divided into visceral and sub-cutaneous deposits, and these tissues have different behaviours and functions, too.
From a clinical perspective, it’s important to know that adipocyte-related inflammatory effects can be neutralised with omega 3 fatty acids, which return fat cells to a ‘healthy’ configuration. Their inflammatory effects can also be inhibited by various polyphenols which, among other things, block release of pro-inflammatory microRNAs.
In my experience, combining omega 3s with lipophile polyphenols and AMPK-activators such as dammarane saponins and metformin, provide supra-additive benefits.”
https://drpaulclayton.eu/blog/turn-fat-into-muscle/ “Turn Fat into Muscle”
Still no mention of sulforaphane on the doctor’s blog, although it’s:
- Small-molecular weight;
- Fat-cell browning;
- AMPK pathway-activating; and
- Nrf2 pathway-activating.
I came across this first study through a “PPAR sulforaphane” search. Discarding a supplement as a result, because I’m already doing enough!