Three papers on interactions of the virus and inflammatory bowel disease, beginning with a 2021 review:
“Analysis signaling pathways of innate and adaptive immunity components during SARS-CoV-2 infection in IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) patients through a putative alternative route – the gastrointestinal tract, with virus attachment to ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) expressed on IECs (intestinal enterocytes) – allows identifying some molecular pathways and establishing possible mechanisms of immune response formation.
In general, any virus infecting intestinal tissues and/or entering the host’s body through receptors located on intestinal IECs, may be a trigger for the onset of IBD in individuals.”
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11033-021-06565-w “Pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel disease in context of SARS-COV-2 infection”
A second 2021 review continued:
“Patients with COVID-19 may develop various gastrointestinal symptoms, which may be pre-existing or not accompanied by respiratory symptoms. Positive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in stool specimens was a breakthrough because it demonstrated that the virus could replicate and exist in the digestive tract. Duration of viral nucleic acid in feces is longer than that in respiratory specimens, and the peak of viral load is later.
COVID-19 induces an acute inflammatory response which accelerates consumption of nutrients. Gastrointestinal symptoms caused by SARS-CoV-2 further impacted nutrition absorption and exacerbated malnutrition. Patients’ anxiety and poor appetite were also potential contributors to malnutrition.”
https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v27/i24/3502.htm “COVID-19 and its effects on the digestive system”
I found the above two papers by their citing a 2020 review:
“Based on data on over 1400 patients with IBD from an international registry, compared with TNF monotherapy, thiopurine monotherapy and combination thiopurines with TNF antagonists are associated with significantly increased risk of severe COVID-19. Mesalamine/sulfasalazine may be associated with an increased risk, particularly when compared with TNF antagonists. There are no significant differences between biological classes (TNF, interleukin-12/23 and integrin antagonists) on the risk of severe COVID-19.”
https://gut.bmj.com/content/70/4/725 “Effect of IBD medications on COVID-19 outcomes: results from an international registry”
I rated these three papers as requiring more work because they didn’t address an individual’s preparation for originating causes. Managing symptoms isn’t an appropriate response for what all of us face.
Instead, take personal responsibility for your own one precious life.
Looking forward, looking back