This 2019 US review covered memory mechanisms:
“With memory encoding reliant on persistent changes in the properties of synapses, a key question is how can memories be maintained from days to months or a lifetime given molecular turnover? It is likely that positive feedback loops are necessary to persistently maintain the strength of synapses that participate in encoding.
These levels are not isolated, but linked by shared components of feedback loops.”
Despite the review’s exhaustive discussion, the reviewers never came to the point. The word cloud I made of the review’s most frequent thirty words had little to do with why memory occurs:
- Why do some stimuli evoke a memory in response?
- Why are almost all of the stimuli an organism receives not remembered?
Much of the discussion was baseless because it excluded emotion. Many of the citations’ memory findings relied on emotion, though.
For example, in the subsection Roles of persistent epigenetic modifications for maintaining LTF [long-term facilitation], LTP [long-term potentiation], and LTM [long-term memory]:
- “Histone acetylation is increased after fear conditioning in the hippocampus and amygdala.
- Correspondingly, inhibition of histone deacetylase enhances fear conditioning and LTP.
- Following fear conditioning, histone phosphorylation is also increased.
- DNA methylation is also up-regulated in the hippocampus and amygdala after fear conditioning, and inhibition of DNA methylation blocks fear LTM.”
http://learnmem.cshlp.org/content/26/5/133.full “How can memories last for days, years, or a lifetime? Proposed mechanisms for maintaining synaptic potentiation and memory”