Two 2022 in vitro studies from the group that published Red cabbage effects on gut microbiota, with the first nanoencapsulating sulforaphane:
“Sulforaphane (SFN) loaded into membrane vesicles derived from broccoli plants was studied to determine anti-inflammatory potential in a human-macrophage-like in vitro cell model under both normal and inflammatory conditions.
LPS increased IL-6 levels 1.86-fold. All compounds (free SFN, unloaded broccoli membrane (BM)-vesicles, and encapsulated SFN) mediated a dose-dependent reduction in IL-6, both in basal conditions [left] and simulated inflammatory conditions [right]. Encapsulated SFN had the greatest power.
These results showed that membrane vesicles by themselves had anti-inflammatory properties. Possible routes of administration of BM-vesicles loaded with SFN are parenteral, transdermal, and oral.”
https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/4/1940/htm “Membrane Vesicles for Nanoencapsulated Sulforaphane Increased Their Anti-Inflammatory Role on an In Vitro Human Macrophage Model”
A second study nanoencapsulated Bimi®, a crossbreed between broccoli and green Chinese kale:
“The aim of this work was to increase stability of isothiocyanates (ITCs) present in extracts of Bimi® edible parts by nanoencapsulation using cauliflower-derived plasma membrane vesicles.
Bimi® has emerged as a mild-flavoured option to pungent broccoli. As a raw gourmet material, Bimi® is highly and carefully selected, with part of edible production discarded.
Indole glucosinolates (GSLs) represented 81% of total GSL content. The only aliphatic GSL detected in a quantifiable amount was glucoraphanin, accounting for 19% of total GSLs.
Comparisons between concentrations of ITCs in gastric and intestinal digestions:
A) 3,3-diindolylmethane (DIM);
- Bimi® extract increased 2 times, and no differences in nanoencapsulated treatment after intestinal digestion.
- Concentrations were 4- and 2-fold higher in the nanoencapsulated form than extract between gastric and intestinal digestions, respectively.
B) Indole-3-carbinol (I3C);
- Bimi® extract increased 1.5 times, and nanoencapsulated treatment decreased 23% after intestinal digestion.
- Concentrations were 3 times higher and 2 times higher in the nanoencapsulated form than extract between gastric and intestinal digestions, respectively.
- Bimi® extract increased almost 10 times, and 100 times in nanoencapsulated treatment after intestinal digestion.
- No differences between treatments after gastric digestion, but concentrations were 6 times higher in the nanoencapsulated form than extract after intestinal digestion.
Cauliflower-derived plasma membrane vesicles are able to enhance stability of ITCs through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, improving their bioaccessibility and potential bioavailability.”
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814622006422 “Nanoencapsulation of Bimi® extracts increases its bioaccessibility after in vitro digestion and evaluation of its activity in hepatocyte metabolism”