This 2015 UK rodent study provided details of how neurons in the hippocampus respond to stimuli. The researchers found that hippocampal neurons:
“Remain electrically stable when confronted with chronic increases in neuronal activity.”
Changes in electrical potential changed the initial segment of the neuron’s axon.
Synapses formed along the segment, and stayed in place while this highly-plastic segment moved along the axon. The location mismatch:
“Allows the GABAergic [producing gamma-Aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurochemical] synapses to strongly oppose action potential generation, and thus downregulate pyramidal cell excitability.”
The researchers also used the two antioxidants endogenous to humans, superoxide dismutase and glutathione, to supplement the culture medium.
http://www.pnas.org/content/112/31/9757.full “Activity-dependent mismatch between axo-axonic synapses and the axon initial segment controls neuronal output”