This 2015 Canadian rodent study found:
“Chronic social defeat induced behavioral changes that were associated with reduced richness and diversity of the gut microbial community.
The degree of deficits in social, but not exploratory behavior was correlated with group differences between the microbial community profile.
Defeated mice also exhibited reduced abundance of pathways involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of tyrosine and tryptophan: molecules that serve as precursors for the synthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and melatonin, respectively.
This study indicates that stress-induced disruptions in neurologic function are associated with altered immunoregulatory responses.”
The researchers had an extensive Discussion section where they tied the study’s findings to other rodent and human studies. For example:
“Our analyses also predicted reduced frequency of fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways, including that of propanoate and butanoate—the byproducts of dietary carbohydrate fermentation by intestinal microorganisms.
Butyrate is a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that exerts antidepressant-like effects by increasing histone acetylation in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, and consequentially, raising BDNF transcript levels.
Although it was previously unclear whether the systemic levels of these metabolites achieved in vivo were sufficient to produce behavioral changes, progress has been made by discovering their presence in the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain, and demonstrating that colon-derived SCFAs [short chain fatty acids] cross the blood–brain barrier and preferentially accumulate in the hypothalamus, where they can affect CNS activity.”
http://www.psyneuen-journal.com/article/S0306-4530%2815%2900934-8/fulltext “Structural & functional consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on the microbiome & host”