This 2019 German human study found: “A critical role of BDNF [brain-derived neurotrophic factor] methylation in human amygdala response to negative emotional stimuli, whereby: High BDNF methylation rates were for the first time shown to be associated with a high reactivity in the amygdala; and High BDNF methylation and high amygdala reactivity were associated with … Continue reading Emotional responses and BDNF methylation
Ever heard about AGEs? Here are three papers that describe how AGEs affect humans. First is a 2020 Italian review Common Protective Strategies in Neurodegenerative Disease: Focusing on Risk Factors to Target the Cellular Redox System: “Neurodegenerative disease is an umbrella term for different conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain. Currently, … Continue reading Get serious about advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
To follow up Do broccoli sprouts treat migraines? which used a PubMed “sulforaphane migraine” search, a PubMed “diindolylmethane” search came across a 2020 Czech human cell study Antimigraine Drug Avitriptan Is a Ligand and Agonist of Human Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor that Induces CYP1A1 in Hepatic and Intestinal Cells that had this informative Introduction: “The aryl … Continue reading Part 2 of Do broccoli sprouts treat migraines?
This 2019 Mexican review stated: “We describe some of the molecular and physical characteristics of SFN, its mechanisms of action, and the effects that SFN treatment induces in order to discuss its relevance as a ‘miraculous’ drug to prevent aging and neurodegeneration. SFN has been shown to modulate several cellular pathways in order to activate … Continue reading A review of sulforaphane and aging
This 2019 McGill rodent study found: “Prenatal stress exacerbates pain after injury. Analysis of mRNA expression of genes related to epigenetic regulation and stress responses in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, brain structures implicated in chronic pain, showed distinct sex and region-specific patterns of dysregulation. In general, mRNA expression was most frequently altered in the … Continue reading Prenatal stress heightened adult chronic pain
This 2018 Hungary/UK study used Bayesian analysis to better understand gene-environment interactions that produce depression: “Most genetic studies do not consider the effect of stressors which may be one reason for the lack of replicable results in candidate gene studies, GWAS [genome-wide association studies] and between human studies and animal models. Animal models of depression … Continue reading A study of gene-environment interactions
This 2017 Georgia human review covered: “Recent studies, primarily focused on the findings from human studies, to indicate the role of DNA methylation in the associations between childhood adversity and cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. In particular, we focused on DNA methylation modifications in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system.” Recommendations … Continue reading DNA methylation and childhood adversity
This 2015 Canadian rodent study found: “Chronic social defeat induced behavioral changes that were associated with reduced richness and diversity of the gut microbial community. The degree of deficits in social, but not exploratory behavior was correlated with group differences between the microbial community profile. Defeated mice also exhibited reduced abundance of pathways involved in … Continue reading Stress consequences on gut bacteria, behavior, immune system, and neurologic function
This 2015 Swiss human study’s Abstract began: “It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling.” The study had several statements that were unconvincingly supported by the study’s findings. One such statement in the Conclusions section was: “This study supports … Continue reading It is known: Are a study’s agendas more important than its evidence?
This 2015 French rodent study found: “The coordinated actions of BDNF and glucocorticoids promote neuronal plasticity and that disruption in either pathway could set the stage for the development of stress-induced psychiatric diseases. Genetic strategies that disrupted GR [glucocorticoid receptor] phosphorylation or TrkB [the BDNF receptor] signaling in vivo impaired the neuroplasticity to chronic stress … Continue reading A study of stress factors and neuroplasticity during infancy/early childhood
This 2015 Italian rodent study found: “There is a window of plasticity that allows familiar and novel experiences to alter anxiety– and depressive-like behaviors, reflected also in electrophysiological changes in the dentate gyrus (DG). A consistent biomarker of mood-related behaviors in DG is reduced type 2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2), which regulates the release of glutamate. … Continue reading Familiar stress opens up an epigenetic window of neural plasticity
This 2015 Chicago review noted: “Recent developments in the research of ASD [autistic spectrum disorder] with a focus on epigenetic pathways as a complement to current genetic screening. Not all children with a predisposing genotype develop ASD. This suggests that additional environmental factors likely interact with the genome in producing ASD. Increased risk of ASD … Continue reading A review of genetic and epigenetic approaches to autism
This dense and highly-jargoned 2015 rodent study found: “The suppression of BDNF [brain-derived neurotrophic factor] signaling, LTP [long-term potentiation], and memory may be driven by an increased sensitivity to IL-1β [the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β] that occurs directly at synapses.” The researchers reversed the adverse effects of IL-1β after they induced stress and inflammation. Blocking … Continue reading Adverse effects of inflammation and stress on hippocampal synapses
This 2012 Italian rodent study found that a common dietary supplement had rapid and lasting antidepressant effects: “Remarkably, L-acetylcarnitine displayed a clear-cut antidepressant effect already after 3 and 7 d[ays] of daily dosing. No tolerance was developed to the action of L-acetylcarnitine. The drug was even more effective after 21 d[ays], and the effect persisted for … Continue reading A common dietary supplement that has rapid and lasting antidepressant effects