How mothers-to-be program lifelong low testosterone into their unborn male children

This 2014 rodent study was one of many on how pregnant mothers-to-be epigenetically program their developing children. The enduring changes made to the male fetuses in the womb led to lifelong low testosterone, which produces a variety of ill health effects:

“Leydig cells do not develop until puberty but the team showed that their function is impaired if their stem cell forefathers are exposed to reduced levels of testosterone in the womb.

There is increasing evidence that a mother’s diet, lifestyle and exposure to drugs and chemicals can have a significant impact on testosterone levels in the womb.” “Fetal programming of adult Leydig cell function by androgenic effects on stem/progenitor cells”

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