This 2015 Chinese study found that the differing characteristics of the Chinese and English languages shape people’s brains differently:
“Our results revealed that, although speech processing is largely carried out in the common left hemisphere classical language areas (Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas) and anterior temporal cortex, speech comprehension across different language groups depends on how these brain regions interact with each other.”
For an informed discussion of the study and related issues, visit http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=17949 and comments.
We can infer from the Would you deprive your infant in order to be in a researcher’s control group? study that this shaping process begins during womb life.
http://www.pnas.org/content/112/10/2972.full “Cross-language differences in the brain network subserving intelligible speech”