This 2020 rodent study ran a series of experiments relating gut health factors. I left some items out that Google Translate didn’t handle well.
“This study investigated effects of food factors on colonic microbiota, fermentation products, mucins, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Colonic ALP activity was positively correlated with colonic luminal variables such as fecal mucin level, ratio of Bifidobacterium spp., and level of n-butyrate, which are associated with a more favorable colonic environment. We propose that the increase of colonic ALP activity induced by fermentable non-digestible carbohydrates may be important for protection of gut epithelial homeostasis.
Since glucomannan was found to induce colon ALP activity, effects of other dietary fibers were also investigated. Ingestion of water-soluble dietary fibers pectin and inulin significantly increased colon tissue and fecal ALP activity of high-fat diet-fed rats.
Ingestion of chitosan, an insoluble dietary fiber, had no effect on colonic ALP activity. This indicates that colonic ALP activity may be induced by indigestible sugars such as fermentable water-soluble dietary fiber.
ALP activity of the large intestine tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet was significantly increased by ingestion of indigestible oligosaccharides fructooligosaccharide (FOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), raffinose (RAF) and lactulose (LAC). Mucin, n-butyric acid, and Bifidobacterium spp. significantly increased, and Clostridium coccoides was significantly reduced.
In the digestible isomaltooligosaccharide (IMOS)-added diet group, large intestine ALP activity, ALP gene expression, mucin, organic acid, and intestinal flora showed no effect.
In order to investigate nutritional conditions on inducing colon ALP activity by oligosaccharide intake, the difference in lipid quality ingested was examined under a high-fat diet.
- When soybean oil and lard were used as dietary fats, the difference in quality of dietary lipids did not affect large intestine ALP activity and IAP-I expression in the FOS-free diet.
- When FOS was added, ALP activity and IAP-I expression in the large intestine tissue were significantly increased under the condition of a high lard diet as compared with a high soybean oil diet.
- Mucin content behaved similarly to colon tissue ALP activity and IAP-I expression.
In this study, it was newly found that the effect of indigestible oligosaccharide intake on increasing colon ALP activity differs depending on nutritional conditions such as type of lipid. Furthermore, it was found that the increase in colon ALP activity under indigestible sugar intake has a positive correlation with factors involved in maintaining function of the intestinal environment, such as mucin.”
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jsnfs/74/1/74_9/_article “Modulation of the Colonic Luminal Environment by Food Factors” (in Japanese)
I arrived at this study by it citing a 2011 study Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) or Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-4) Induces Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Expression. More on IAP in this 2020 video: