Lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects

This 2016 Finnish review’s subject was the epigenetic effects of hypoxia: “Ever since the Cambrian period, oxygen availability has been in the center of energy metabolism. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. There are several other … Continue reading Lack of oxygen’s epigenetic effects

The current paradigm of child abuse limits pre-childhood causal research

As an adult, what would be your primary concern if you suspected that your early life had something to do with current problems? Would you be interested in effective treatments for causes of your symptoms? Such information wasn’t available in this 2016 Miami review of the effects of child abuse. The review laid out the … Continue reading The current paradigm of child abuse limits pre-childhood causal research

Using an epigenetic clock with older adults

This 2016 German human study found: “Epigenetic age acceleration is correlated with clinically relevant aging-related phenotypes through pathways unrelated to cellular senescence as assessed by telomere length. The current work employed the frailty index, a multi-dimensional approach that combines [34] parameters of multiple physiological systems and functional capacities. The present findings were based on [1,820] … Continue reading Using an epigenetic clock with older adults

Using an epigenetic clock with children

This 2015 UK human study by many of the coauthors of What’s the origin of the problem of being fat? applied the Horvath epigenetic clock method to the same UK mother-child pairs and a Danish cohort: “There has been no investigation on prenatal and antenatal factors that affect AA [age acceleration] in children. It is … Continue reading Using an epigenetic clock with children

The link between scientific value and content is broken at PNAS.org

Should we expect content posted on the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America to have scientific value? This 2016 Singapore study was a “PNAS Direct Submission” that claimed: “This paper makes a singular contribution to understanding the association between biological aging indexed by leukocyte telomeres length (LTL) and … Continue reading The link between scientific value and content is broken at PNAS.org

Telomerase activity outside of telomere maintenance

This 2016 Singapore review was on the role of telomerase in cancers. From its background section: “Telomeres are conserved, repetitive sequences located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes which protect the integrity of genomic DNA. DNA polymerase is unable to replicate the 5′ [carbon number] ends of chromosomes, hence, cells require a RNA dependent DNA … Continue reading Telomerase activity outside of telomere maintenance

DNA damage to fat cells may cause obesity and insulin resistance

This 2015 Indiana rodent study found: “DNA damage is a root cause of adipocyte senescence [fat cells that can no longer replicate], which plays a determining role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance.” The researchers removed the capability for the subject mice to produce a protein that “plays an essential role in preventing … Continue reading DNA damage to fat cells may cause obesity and insulin resistance

A study of how “age” itself wasn’t a causal factor for wound-healing differences

This 2015 California rodent study found: “A surprising beneficial effect of mitochondrial dysfunction at young age (accelerated wound closure), and a potential mechanism for the reduced epidermal regeneration at older ages (stem cell depletion).” The researchers generated mitochondrial oxidative stress by deleting: “A nuclear gene that encodes the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2). … Continue reading A study of how “age” itself wasn’t a causal factor for wound-healing differences

Shorter telomere length in older men but not older women

This 2014 UK human study was the first on telomere length I’ve curated, so here’s some background information: “Telomeres are..structures..that cap the ends of..chromosomes, protecting them from end-to-end fusion and degradation during cell division. Human telomeric DNA naturally shortens with age during..cell divisions and as a result of oxidative attack. At critical shortness, telomeres exhibit … Continue reading Shorter telomere length in older men but not older women