Eat oat avenanthramides for your gut microbiota

This 2021 paper covered a 2016 human clinical trial, and several in vitro and rodent follow-up studies: “Oat has been widely accepted as a key food for human health. It is becoming increasingly evident that individual differences in metabolism determine how different individuals benefit from diet. Both host genetics and gut microbiota play important roles … Continue reading Eat oat avenanthramides for your gut microbiota

All about vasopressin

This 2021 review subject was vasopressin: “Vasopressin is a ubiquitous molecule playing an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, thereby implicated in pathomechanisms of many disorders. The most striking is its central effect in stress-axis regulation, as well as regulating many aspects of our behavior. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a nonapeptide that is … Continue reading All about vasopressin

Take taurine for your mitochondria

This 2021 review summarized taurine’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function: “Taurine supplementation protects against pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects, such as aging, mitochondrial diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders. Potential mechanisms by which taurine exerts its antioxidant activity in maintaining mitochondria health include: Conjugates with uridine on mitochondrial tRNA to form a … Continue reading Take taurine for your mitochondria

Changing your immune system / gut microbiota interactions with diet

This 2021 human clinical trial investigated associations between gut microbiota and host adaptive immune system components: “Diet modulates gut microbiome, and gut microbes impact the immune system. We used two gut microbiota-targeted dietary interventions – plant-based fiber or fermented foods – to determine how each influences microbiome and immune system in healthy adults. Using a … Continue reading Changing your immune system / gut microbiota interactions with diet

Preventing human infections with dietary fibers

This 2020 review covered interactions of gut microbiota, intestinal mucus, and dietary fibers. I’ve outlined its headings and subheadings, and ended with its overview: “I. Dietary fibers and human mucus-associated polysaccharides: can we make an analogy? I.1 Brief overview of dietary fibers and mucus polysaccharides structures and properties I.I.1 Dietary fibers Dietary fiber intake and … Continue reading Preventing human infections with dietary fibers

An IBD trigger?

Three papers on interactions of the virus and inflammatory bowel disease, beginning with a 2021 review: “Analysis signaling pathways of innate and adaptive immunity components during SARS-CoV-2 infection in IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) patients through a putative alternative route – the gastrointestinal tract, with virus attachment to ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) expressed on IECs (intestinal … Continue reading An IBD trigger?

Gut microbiota strains

Three human studies investigated strains within microbiota species. The first from 2021 had obese child subjects: “Dietary intervention is effective in human health promotion through modulation of gut microbiota. Diet can cause single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to occur in gut microbiota, and some of these variations may lead to functional changes in human health. Compared with … Continue reading Gut microbiota strains

Gut microbiota functional relationships

This 2021 study investigated environmentally-organized gut microbiome functional relationships: “There has been a substantial gap between understanding microbiome assemblage and how its functionality is organized. In this study, we demonstrated the usefulness of metaproteomics in gaining a system-level understanding of microbiome functionality. Our current finding highlights the value of further investigation into functional hubs and … Continue reading Gut microbiota functional relationships

If you aren’t where you want to be, change yourself

This 2021 human study evaluated associations among epigenetic clocks and socioeconomic status: “We conducted a comprehensive, comparative analysis of associations between various dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, wealth, occupation, neighbourhood environment, and childhood SES) and eight epigenetic clocks in two well-powered US ageing studies: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA); and The Health … Continue reading If you aren’t where you want to be, change yourself

Blood pressure and pain

A trio of papers, with the second and third citing a 2013 review: “The relationship between pain and hypertension is potentially of great pathophysiological and clinical interest, but is poorly understood. Perception of acute pain initially plays an adaptive role, which results in prevention of tissue damage. The consequence of ascending nociception is recruitment of … Continue reading Blood pressure and pain

PTSD susceptibility?

This 2021 rodent study investigated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) susceptibility: “PTSD is an incapacitating trauma-related disorder, with no reliable therapy. We show distinct DNA methylation profiles of PTSD susceptibility in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Data analysis revealed overall hypomethylation of different genomic CpG sites in susceptible animals. Is it possible to treat PTSD by targeting … Continue reading PTSD susceptibility?

Gut and brain health

This 2021 human review subject was interactions of gut health and disease with brain health and disease: “Actions of microbial metabolites are key for appropriate gut-brain communication in humans. Among these metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), tryptophan, and bile acid metabolites / pathways show strong preclinical evidence for involvement in various aspects of brain function … Continue reading Gut and brain health

The brainstem’s parabrachial nucleus

I often reread blog posts that you read. Yesterday, a reader clicked Treat your gut microbiota as one of your organs. On rereading, I saw that I didn’t properly reference the parabrachial nucleus as being part of the brainstem. A “parabrachial nucleus” search led me to a discussion of two 2020 rodent studies: “Nociceptive signals … Continue reading The brainstem’s parabrachial nucleus

Vitamin K2 forms and effects

Two human studies using two forms of Vitamin K2. The first published in 2021 was with premenopausal women taking the MK-7 form: “The aim of this 6-month randomised, controlled trial was to examine effects on bone metabolism of a nutritional supplement in women aged 25 to 44. The nutritional supplement was a protein-rich beverage powder … Continue reading Vitamin K2 forms and effects

Precondition your defenses with broccoli sprouts

This 2020 human cell study elaborated on mechanisms mentioned in Eat broccoli sprouts for your hearing and Sulforaphane in the Goldilocks zone: “NFE2L2/NRF2, a transcriptional factor that controls expression of multiple detoxifying enzymes through antioxidant response elements (AREs), is a target of sulforaphane (SFN). NFE2L2/NRF2 is a target gene of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a … Continue reading Precondition your defenses with broccoli sprouts