Transgenerationally inherited epigenetic effects of fetal alcohol exposure

The fourth paper of Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance week was a 2016 German rodent study of transgenerational epigenetic effects of alcohol: “We investigated 2 generations of offspring born to alcohol-treated mothers. Here, we show that memory impairment and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in both F1 (exposed to ethanol in utero) and F2 generation (never been exposed to … Continue reading Transgenerationally inherited epigenetic effects of fetal alcohol exposure

Transgenerational pathological traits induced by prenatal immune activation

The third paper of Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance week was a 2016 Swiss rodent study of immune system epigenetic effects: “Our study demonstrates for, we believe, the first time that prenatal immune activation can negatively affect brain and behavioral functions in multiple generations. These findings thus highlight a novel pathological aspect of this early-life adversity in shaping … Continue reading Transgenerational pathological traits induced by prenatal immune activation

Transgenerational effects of early environmental insults on aging and disease

The first paper of Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance week was a 2017 Canadian/Netherlands review that’s organized as follows: “First, we address mechanisms of developmental and transgenerational programming of disease and inheritance. Second, we discuss experimental and clinical findings linking early environmental determinants to adverse aging trajectories in association with possible parental contributions and sex-specific effects. Third, we … Continue reading Transgenerational effects of early environmental insults on aging and disease

Epigenetic effects of THC differ between female adolescents and adults

This 2017 Italian rodent study found: “THC [delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis] exposure affects histone modifications in the brain of female rats in a region- and age-specific manner. Specifically, THC acts on different targets depending on the considered brain area and, remarkably, the adolescent brain is generally more sensitive to THC than the adult … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of THC differ between female adolescents and adults

A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

This December 2016 Australian review published in September 2017 concerned: “..the nutritional psychiatry field..the neurobiological mechanisms likely modulated by diet, the use of dietary and nutraceutical interventions in mental disorders, and recommendations for further research.” The reviewers inexplicably omitted acetyl-L-carnitine, which I first covered in A common dietary supplement that has rapid and lasting antidepressant … Continue reading A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

Epigenetic stress effects in preterm infants

This 2017 Italian review selected 9 human studies on the epigenetic effects of: “..one of the major adverse events in human development. Preterm infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit where they are exposed to life-saving yet pain-inducing procedures and to protective care.” Highlights of the referenced studies included: “..early exposure to adverse … Continue reading Epigenetic stress effects in preterm infants

Epigenetic effects on genetic diseases

This 2017 review provided evidence for epigenetic effects on a disease widely considered to be of genetic origins: “..for a T1D [type 1 diabetes] identical twin the concordance rate (both twins affected)..is consistently less than 100%, which implies a non-genetically determined effect. However, the concordance rate declines with age at diagnosis of the index twin, … Continue reading Epigenetic effects on genetic diseases

Genetic imprinting, sleep, and parent-offspring conflict

This 2016 Italian review subject was the interplay of genetic imprinting and sleep regulation: “Sleep results from the synergism between at least two major processes: a homeostatic regulatory mechanism that depends on the accumulation of the sleep drive during wakefulness, and a circadian self-sustained mechanism that sets the time for sleeping and waking throughout the … Continue reading Genetic imprinting, sleep, and parent-offspring conflict

A limited study of parental transmission of anxiety/stress-reactive traits

This 2016 New York rodent study found: “Parental behavioural traits can be transmitted by non-genetic mechanisms to the offspring. We show that four anxiety/stress-reactive traits are transmitted via independent iterative-somatic and gametic epigenetic mechanisms across multiple generations. As the individual traits/pathways each have their own generation-dependent penetrance and gender specificity, the resulting cumulative phenotype is … Continue reading A limited study of parental transmission of anxiety/stress-reactive traits

Epigenetic remodeling creates immune system memory

This 2016 German review was of the memory characteristics of immune cells: “Innate immune memory has likely evolved as an ancient mechanism to protect against pathogens. However, dysregulated processes of immunological imprinting mediated by trained innate immunity may also be detrimental under certain conditions. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that innate immune cells can adopt a … Continue reading Epigenetic remodeling creates immune system memory