Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

This 2015 Pennsylvania rodent study found: “Mitochondria can regulate complex whole-body physiological responses, impacting stress perception at the cellular and organismal levels. Mitochondrial dysfunctions altered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal–medullary activation and catecholamine levels, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, circulating metabolites, and hippocampal gene expression responses to stress. Stress-induced [1] neuroendocrine, [2] inflammatory, [3] metabolic, and … Continue reading Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

Lysine acetylation is gnarly and dynamic

This 2018 UC San Francisco cell review provided details of lysine acetylation: “Lysine acetylation has moved from being a specialized mark on histones to a critical modification controlling cell fate, proliferation, and metabolism. During the lifetime of a protein there are many points at which an acetyl group may be added to influence function..The dynamic … Continue reading Lysine acetylation is gnarly and dynamic

A review of human pluripotent stem cell research

This 2018 Belgian review subject was human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs): “hPSCs are now starting to live up to the great expectations they created after their first derivation nearly twenty years ago. Indeed, the first results of clinical trials to treat macular degeneration are being published, and an increasing number of clinical or preclinical trials … Continue reading A review of human pluripotent stem cell research

Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

This 2017 Australian review’s subject was epigenetic impacts involving microRNA in adverse intrauterine environments, and how these affected fetal heart tissue development: “We describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

This December 2016 Australian review published in September 2017 concerned: “..the nutritional psychiatry field..the neurobiological mechanisms likely modulated by diet, the use of dietary and nutraceutical interventions in mental disorders, and recommendations for further research.” The reviewers inexplicably omitted acetyl-L-carnitine, which I first covered in A common dietary supplement that has rapid and lasting antidepressant … Continue reading A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

The cerebellum ages more slowly than other body and brain areas

This 2015 UCLA human study used the epigenetic clock methodology to find: “All brain regions have similar DNAm ages in subjects younger than 80, but brain region becomes an increasingly significant determinant of age acceleration in older subjects. The cerebellum has a lower epigenetic age than other brain regions in older subjects. To study age … Continue reading The cerebellum ages more slowly than other body and brain areas

A study of how genetic factors determined diet-induced epigenetic changes

This 2016 California rodent study found: “HF [high fat] diet leads to persistent alterations of chromatin accessibility that are partially mediated by transcription factors and histone post-translational modifications. These chromatin alterations are furthermore strain specific, indicating a genetic component to the response. These results suggest that persistent epigenetic modifications induced by HF diet have the … Continue reading A study of how genetic factors determined diet-induced epigenetic changes

Brain-region-specific energy metabolism affected the social competitiveness of highly-anxious rats

This 2015 Swiss rodent study found: “Mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region relevant for motivation and depression, is a critical mediating factor in the subordinate status displayed by high-anxious rats. Treatment with nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 that boosts mitochondrial respiration, into the NAc [nucleus accumbens] of high-anxious rats at … Continue reading Brain-region-specific energy metabolism affected the social competitiveness of highly-anxious rats

Where do our beliefs about our children come from? An autism example

A 2015 case study by Ohio physicians highlighted: “Although only a small minority of patients with autism have a mitochondrial disease, many patients with mitochondrial myopathies have autism spectrum disorder symptoms. These symptoms may be the presenting symptoms, which presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. The case of a 15-year-old boy with a history of … Continue reading Where do our beliefs about our children come from? An autism example

A study of how “age” itself wasn’t a causal factor for wound-healing differences

This 2015 California rodent study found: “A surprising beneficial effect of mitochondrial dysfunction at young age (accelerated wound closure), and a potential mechanism for the reduced epidermal regeneration at older ages (stem cell depletion).” The researchers generated mitochondrial oxidative stress by deleting: “A nuclear gene that encodes the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2). … Continue reading A study of how “age” itself wasn’t a causal factor for wound-healing differences