Little evidence for mitochondrial DNA methylation

This 2018 Japanese rodent study used three different techniques to detect mitochondrial DNA methylation: “Whilst 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a major epigenetic mark in the nuclear DNA in mammals, whether or not mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) receives 5mC modification remains controversial. We used bisulfite sequencing, McrBC digestion analyses and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which are distinctly differing … Continue reading Little evidence for mitochondrial DNA methylation

Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

This 2015 Pennsylvania rodent study found: “Mitochondria can regulate complex whole-body physiological responses, impacting stress perception at the cellular and organismal levels. Mitochondrial dysfunctions altered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal [HPA] axis, sympathetic adrenal–medullary activation and catecholamine levels, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, circulating metabolites, and hippocampal gene expression responses to stress. Stress-induced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic, and transcriptional responses … Continue reading Mitochondria interface genetic/epigenetic responses to psychological stress

A dietary supplement that reversed age-related hearing problems in the brainstem

This 2018 Nevada rodent study was on acetyl-L-carnitine’s action in the brainstem: “We examined age-related changes in the efficiency of synaptic transmission at the calyx of Held, from juvenile adults (1-month old) and late middle-age (18- to 21-month old) mice. The calyx of Held synapse has been exploited as a model for understanding excitation-secretion coupling … Continue reading A dietary supplement that reversed age-related hearing problems in the brainstem

This dietary supplement is better for depression symptoms than placebo

This 2018 Italy/UK meta-analysis subject was the use of dietary supplement acetyl-L-carnitine to treat depression symptoms: “Deficiency of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) appears to play a role in the risk of developing depression, indicating dysregulation of fatty acids transport across the inner membrane of mitochondria. However, the data regarding ALC supplementation in humans are limited. We thus … Continue reading This dietary supplement is better for depression symptoms than placebo

The influence of donor age on induced pluripotent stem cell functionality

This 2018 German review subject was the influence of donor age on induced pluripotent stem cell functionality: “Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) avoid many of the restrictions that hamper the application of human embryonic stem cells..Also, the donor’s clinical phenotype is often known when working with iPSCs. Typical signs of cellular ageing are reverted in … Continue reading The influence of donor age on induced pluripotent stem cell functionality

Lysine acetylation is gnarly and dynamic

This 2018 UC San Francisco cell review provided details of lysine acetylation: “Lysine acetylation has moved from being a specialized mark on histones to a critical modification controlling cell fate, proliferation, and metabolism. During the lifetime of a protein there are many points at which an acetyl group may be added to influence function..The dynamic … Continue reading Lysine acetylation is gnarly and dynamic

A review of human pluripotent stem cell research

This 2018 Belgian review subject was human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs): “hPSCs are now starting to live up to the great expectations they created after their first derivation nearly twenty years ago. Indeed, the first results of clinical trials to treat macular degeneration are being published, and an increasing number of clinical or preclinical trials … Continue reading A review of human pluripotent stem cell research

Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

This 2017 Australian review’s subject was epigenetic impacts involving microRNA in adverse intrauterine environments, and how these affected fetal heart tissue development: “We describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

This December 2016 Australian review published in September 2017 concerned: “..the nutritional psychiatry field..the neurobiological mechanisms likely modulated by diet, the use of dietary and nutraceutical interventions in mental disorders, and recommendations for further research.” The reviewers inexplicably omitted acetyl-L-carnitine, which I first covered in A common dietary supplement that has rapid and lasting antidepressant … Continue reading A gaping hole in a review of nutritional psychiatry

The cerebellum ages more slowly than other body and brain areas

This 2015 UCLA human study used the epigenetic clock methodology to find: “All brain regions have similar DNAm ages in subjects younger than 80, but brain region becomes an increasingly significant determinant of age acceleration in older subjects. The cerebellum has a lower epigenetic age than other brain regions in older subjects. To study age … Continue reading The cerebellum ages more slowly than other body and brain areas