Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

This 2017 Australian review’s subject was epigenetic impacts involving microRNA in adverse intrauterine environments, and how these affected fetal heart tissue development: “We describe how an adverse intrauterine environment can influence the expression of miRNAs (a sub-set of non-coding RNAs) and how these changes may impact heart development. Potential consequences of altered miRNA expression in … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of microRNA on fetal heart development

Using salivary microRNA to diagnose autism

This 2016 New York human study found: “Measurement of salivary miRNA in this pilot study of subjects with mild ASD [autism spectrum disorder] demonstrated differential expression of 14 miRNAs that are: expressed in the developing brain, impact mRNAs related to brain development, and correlate with neurodevelopmental measures of adaptive behavior.” Some problems with current diagnostic … Continue reading Using salivary microRNA to diagnose autism

Transgenerational epigenetic programming with stress and microRNA

This 2015 Pennsylvania rodent study found: “Sperm miRs [microRNAs, a small non-coding RNA that has a role in gene expression] function to reduce maternal mRNA [messenger RNA, a large RNA that carries codes for protein production] stores in early zygotes, ultimately reprogramming gene expression in the offspring hypothalamus and recapitulating the offspring stress dysregulation phenotype.” … Continue reading Transgenerational epigenetic programming with stress and microRNA

The purpose of epigenetic mechanisms

The concluding remarks of this 2018 Chinese review were: “Using heterochromatin as a model, we have reviewed here the mechanisms behind the establishment and maintenance of silent chromatin domains. We conclude that almost every component of the chromatin environment, including DNA elements, RNAs, histones and other chromatin proteins, plays a role in the process of … Continue reading The purpose of epigenetic mechanisms

How well do single-mother rodent studies inform us about human fathers?

Two items before getting to the review: 94% of rodent genera are naturally uniparental; The Rattus and Mus genera used in almost all rodent research aren’t part of the 6% in which fathers also provide offspring care. This 2018 Australian review subject was paternal intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of biological and behavioral phenotypes per this … Continue reading How well do single-mother rodent studies inform us about human fathers?

DNA methylation and childhood adversity

This 2017 Georgia human review covered: “Recent studies, primarily focused on the findings from human studies, to indicate the role of DNA methylation in the associations between childhood adversity and cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. In particular, we focused on DNA methylation modifications in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system.” Recommendations … Continue reading DNA methylation and childhood adversity

Epigenetic effects of cruciferous vegetable compounds

This 2017 German review discussed the results of many of the studies performed over the past thirty years investigating the health-promoting effects of cruciferous vegetable compounds: “SFN [sulforaphane] [is] the ITC [isothiocyanate] that is the most extensively studied for its chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, as well as in vivo. Due to the reversible … Continue reading Epigenetic effects of cruciferous vegetable compounds

Epigenetic contributions to hypertension

This 2016 Australian review subject was epigenetic contributions to hypertension: “Hypertension (HT) affects more than 1 billion people globally and is a major risk factor for stroke, chronic kidney disease, and myocardial infarction. Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex, polygenic condition with no single causative agent. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications are as … Continue reading Epigenetic contributions to hypertension

What is epigenetic inheritance?

This 2016 review by Eric J. Nestler, a well-known and well-funded researcher, entitled Transgenerational Epigenetic Contributions to Stress Responses: Fact or Fiction? concluded: “Further work is needed to understand whether and to what extent true epigenetic inheritance of stress vulnerability adds to the well-established and powerful influence of genetics and environmental exposures in determining an … Continue reading What is epigenetic inheritance?

The epigenetic influence of obese parents at conception

This 2016 German rodent study found: “Using in vitro fertilization to ensure exclusive inheritance via the gametes, we show that a parental high-fat diet renders offspring more susceptible to developing obesity and diabetes in a sex- and parent of origin–specific mode.” It would have benefited the researchers to have made the full study freely available. … Continue reading The epigenetic influence of obese parents at conception