Epigenetic clocks so far in 2022

2022’s busiest researcher took time out this month to update progress on epigenetic clocks. If I curated every study he’s contributed to, it would require at least three blog posts a week. I’ll link to a few he’s posted in August 2022 that are more appreciated in the researcher community. “In my lab, we are … Continue reading Epigenetic clocks so far in 2022

Trained immunity epigenetics

Two papers on trained immunity, starting with a 2022 review: “Live attenuated vaccines such as the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, measles-containing vaccines, and the oral polio vaccine have been shown to reduce overall mortality beyond their effects attributable to the targeted diseases. After an encounter with a primary stimulus, epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of bone marrow progenitor … Continue reading Trained immunity epigenetics

Non-CpG methylation

Three 2022 papers on methylation epigenetic modifiers, starting with a human study focused on mitochondrial DNA non-CpG methylation involving nucleobases other than guanine (arginine, cytosine, or thymine): “We collected brain tissue in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex from deceased individuals without (n = 39) and with (n = 14) drug use, and used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to cover … Continue reading Non-CpG methylation

Fueling a gut fire

This 2022 article commented on a human / rodent study of gut dysbiosis: “Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic disease that causes inflammation in the gastrointestinal track. Together with ulcerative colitis, another major type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), these intestinal disorders affect millions of people in the U.S. and worldwide. Excessive T helper 1 … Continue reading Fueling a gut fire

An epigenetic regulator of vascular aging

This 2022 rodent and human cell study investigated the smooth muscle cell mineralocorticoid receptor: “Vascular stiffness increases with age and independently predicts cardiovascular disease risk. Epigenetic changes, including histone modifications, accumulate with age, but the global pattern has not been elucidated nor are the regulators known. Rising mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in aging vascular smooth muscle … Continue reading An epigenetic regulator of vascular aging

Gut microbiota’s positive epigenetic effects

Three papers with the first a 2021 review: “Gut microbiota along with their metabolites are involved in health and disease through multiple epigenetic mechanisms including: Affecting transporter activities, e.g. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs); Providing methyl donors to participate in DNA methylation and histone modifications; and miRNAs … Continue reading Gut microbiota’s positive epigenetic effects

Reworking evolutionary theory

Dr. Michael Skinner coauthored a 2021 review arguing for inclusion of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance into evolutionary theory: “Over the past 50 years, molecular technology has been used to investigate evolutionary biology. Many examples of finding no correlated genetic mutations or a low frequency of DNA sequence mutations suggest that additional mechanisms are also involved. Identical twins … Continue reading Reworking evolutionary theory

Broccoli sprouts and microRNAs

This 2021 in vitro study investigated microRNAs as potential causative factors for broccoli’s beneficial effects: “A computational analysis was performed to explore processes and pathways associated with genes targeted either by: Host-expressed miRNAs (endogenous) modulated by bioactive compounds in broccoli; or miRNAs derived from broccoli (exogenous). miRNAs are noncoding RNAs containing between 19 and 24 … Continue reading Broccoli sprouts and microRNAs

Trained immunity mechanisms

This 2021 cell study investigated how inflammatory memory is established, maintained, and recalled: “Cells retain a memory of inflammation that equips them to react quickly and broadly to diverse secondary stimuli. Temporal, dynamic changes to chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and transcription factor (TF) binding occur during inflammation, post-resolution, and in memory recall following injury. Epigenetic … Continue reading Trained immunity mechanisms

Gut microbiota and critical development periods

This 2021 rodent study focused on global histone acetylation as a model to understand roles of microbially produced short-chain fatty acids in liver function: “Despite the utility of germ-free mice in probing complex interactions between gut microbiota and host physiology, germ-free mice are developmentally, physiologically, and metabolically unique when compared with their conventionally housed counterparts. … Continue reading Gut microbiota and critical development periods

Broccoli sprouts positively influence Sestrin proteins

Four papers on Sestrin, with the first a 2021 review: “Sestrin 2 (Sesn2) is a member of the evolutionarily conserved and stress-inducible sestrin family. In mammals, this family is composed of Sesn1–3, and Sesn2 is the main member that responds to oxidative stress. Sesn2 inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated cell over-proliferation by activating adenosine … Continue reading Broccoli sprouts positively influence Sestrin proteins

Ride the waves of gene expression with betaine

This 2021 cell study investigated a dietary supplement’s role in preventing nerve disease: “A loss of epigenetic control has been implicated in development of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have implicated aberrant DNA and histone methylation in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease pathogenesis. We have previously reported that methyl donor betaine is depleted in MS and is … Continue reading Ride the waves of gene expression with betaine

An overlooked gut microbiota product

This 2021 review subject was histone crotonylation: “Histone crotonylation is a newly identified epigenetic modification that has a pronounced ability to regulate gene expression. It belongs to an expanding group of short chain lysine acylations that also includes the extensively studied mark histone acetylation. Histone Kcr was first identified in 2011 where it was found … Continue reading An overlooked gut microbiota product

A bat epigenetic clock

This 2021 study subject was bats: “Exceptionally long-lived species, including many bats, rarely show overt signs of aging, making it difficult to determine why species differ in lifespan. Here, we use DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles from 712 known-age bats, representing 26 species, to identify epigenetic changes associated with age and longevity. Hypermethylated age- and longevity-associated … Continue reading A bat epigenetic clock

Eat oat sprouts for AVAs

Here are three oat studies, two of them specifically on oat sprouts. The first from 2019 was cited in Don’t brew oat sprouts – eat them! for oat sprouts having “up to 25-fold increase” in avenanthramides (AVAs): “Oat seeds were germinated, extracted, and analysed, finding 28 unique AVAs. AVAs 2p, 2c, and 2f, which are … Continue reading Eat oat sprouts for AVAs