Inevitable individual differences

This 2021 review subject was individual differences: “We will focus on recent findings that try to shed light on the emergence of individuality, with a particular interest in Drosophila melanogaster. (A) Cumulative and relative contribution of different sources of interindividual variability from early development stages to adult life experience. Individuality emerges from the combination of … Continue reading Inevitable individual differences

The primary causes of individual differences in DNA methylation are environmental factors

This 2015 Canadian human study by McGill researchers found: “Differential methylation is primarily non-genetic in origin, with non-shared environment accounting for most of the variance. These non-genetic effects are mainly tissue-specific. The full scope of environmental variation remains underappreciated.” The researchers developed their findings using adipose and blood samples from monozygotic and dizygotic twins in … Continue reading The primary causes of individual differences in DNA methylation are environmental factors

If research treats “Preexisting individual differences” as a black box, how can it find causes for stress and depression?

This 2014 research studied both humans and rodents to provide further evidence on the physiology of defeat. The researchers demonstrated that with mice: “Bone marrow transplants of stem cells that produce leucocytes lacking IL-6 (the cytokine interleukin 6) or when injected with antibodies that block IL-6 prior to stress exposure, the development of social avoidance … Continue reading If research treats “Preexisting individual differences” as a black box, how can it find causes for stress and depression?

What do we know about human aging from mouse models?

Here is a 2021 rodent study and relevant parts from 3 of its 26 citing papers: “A long line of evidence has established the laboratory mouse as the prime model of human aging. However, relatively little is known about detailed behavioral and functional changes that occur across their lifespan, and how this maps onto the … Continue reading What do we know about human aging from mouse models?

The goddess of rainbows

Two 2022 papers, starting with a review of irisin: “This article is an overview of irisin generation, secretion, and tissue distribution. Its targeting of tissues or organs for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is systematically summarized, with discussion of underlying molecular mechanisms. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine expressed as a bioactive peptide in multiple … Continue reading The goddess of rainbows

Eat oat avenanthramides for your gut microbiota

This 2021 paper covered a 2016 human clinical trial, and several in vitro and rodent follow-up studies: “Oat has been widely accepted as a key food for human health. It is becoming increasingly evident that individual differences in metabolism determine how different individuals benefit from diet. Both host genetics and gut microbiota play important roles … Continue reading Eat oat avenanthramides for your gut microbiota

Changing your immune system / gut microbiota interactions with diet

This 2021 human clinical trial investigated associations between gut microbiota and host adaptive immune system components: “Diet modulates gut microbiome, and gut microbes impact the immune system. We used two gut microbiota-targeted dietary interventions – plant-based fiber or fermented foods – to determine how each influences microbiome and immune system in healthy adults. Using a … Continue reading Changing your immune system / gut microbiota interactions with diet

PTSD susceptibility?

This 2021 rodent study investigated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) susceptibility: “PTSD is an incapacitating trauma-related disorder, with no reliable therapy. We show distinct DNA methylation profiles of PTSD susceptibility in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Data analysis revealed overall hypomethylation of different genomic CpG sites in susceptible animals. Is it possible to treat PTSD by targeting … Continue reading PTSD susceptibility?

Dietary fibers and the aged microbiome

This 2021 rodent study investigated effects of four different types of dietary fiber on two different types of aged human microbiota: “Individual differences in gut microbiota may influence host metabolic responses to dietary fiber in humans. Dietary fibers are edible carbohydrates resistant to host digestive enzymes, and not broken down or absorbed in the small … Continue reading Dietary fibers and the aged microbiome

Eat broccoli sprouts daily, and manage weight

This 2018 human study found: “The objective of this study was to determine whether daily broccoli consumption alters absorption and metabolism of isothiocyanates derived from broccoli glucosinolates. We conducted a randomised cross-over human study (n = 18) balanced for BMI and glutathione S-transferase μ 1 (GSTM1) genotype in which subjects consumed a control diet with … Continue reading Eat broccoli sprouts daily, and manage weight

Part 2 of Switch on your Nrf2 signaling pathway

To follow up topics of Part 1‘s interview: 1. “We each have a unique microbial signature in the gut. Metabolites that you produce might not be the same ones that I produce. This makes clinical studies very difficult because you don’t have a level playing field.” This description of inter-individual variability could inform researchers’ investigations … Continue reading Part 2 of Switch on your Nrf2 signaling pathway

Does sulforaphane reach the colon?

This 2020 study subject was antimicrobial activity of sulforaphane: “This study explored the role that digestion and cooking practices play in bioactivity and bioavailability, especially the rarely considered dose delivered to the colon. A broccoli powder soup was prepared which contained 26.5 µmol of sulforaphane per 200 ml portion. Addition of 2% mustard seed powder … Continue reading Does sulforaphane reach the colon?

Week 28 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts

Did a little math to end this 28th week of eating a clinically relevant weight of microwaved broccoli sprouts every day: I changed the title of weekly updates after Week 7 as a result of A rejuvenation therapy and sulforaphane. Numbers used from its study: “Rats were injected four times on alternate days for 8 … Continue reading Week 28 of Changing to a youthful phenotype with broccoli sprouts

Unraveling oxytocin – is it nature’s medicine?

This 2020 review attempted to consolidate thousands of research papers on oxytocin: “Chemical properties of oxytocin make this molecule difficult to work with and to measure. Effects of oxytocin are context-dependent, sexually dimorphic, and altered by experience. Its relationship to a related hormone, vasopressin, have created challenges for its use as a therapeutic drug. Widely … Continue reading Unraveling oxytocin – is it nature’s medicine?

A cherry-picked DNA methylation study

This 2020 US/Sweden/Denmark human study measured twins during their old age: “We evaluate individual differences in DNA methylation at individual CpG sites across the methylome across 10 years in two Scandinavian samples of same‐sex aging twins. We test two competing hypotheses about the longitudinal stability and change in DNA methylation: The contribution of genetic influences … Continue reading A cherry-picked DNA methylation study