This 2021 study investigated Vitamins K1 and K2 associations with hospitalization for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD):
“In this prospective cohort study, both dietary vitamin K1 intake and vitamin K2 intake were inversely related to ASCVD hospitalization risk, and very low vitamin K1 was associated with a higher risk of ASCVD hospitalizations. Given very different food sources, these data support an independent protective effect for both subtypes of vitamin K.
Relatively higher vitamin K2 intake in our cohort permitted discovery of a nonlinear, more U‐shaped association between vitamin K2 intake and ASCVD risk, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not previously been described. This may reflect a competing increase in ASCVD risk associated with overconsumption of vitamin K2‐rich foods (ie, cheese, eggs, butter).
Our study comes with some limitations common to nutritional epidemiology, and has significant strengths:
- A large sample size with up to 23 years of follow‐up, allowing for accumulation of a high number of events;
- Availability of important participant characteristics, enabling appropriate methods to be employed to reduce residual confounding; and
- Minimal loss to follow‐up (<0.3%).”
https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.120.020551 “Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the Danish Diet Cancer and Health Study”
I came across this study through a 2021 video:
Twice-daily broccoli / red cabbage / mustard sprouts for Vitamin K1, and a supplement for Vitamin K2 is what I do. Expect more than staying out of hospitals, but don’t know whether previous damage can be repaired.